--A. Ralph Johnson



-Highlighting, bolding and underlining of Koran quotations supplied for emphasis by A.R.J.

-Number in brackets [#] before Surahs is order they were given.

-References to the Koran are to the Noble Quran[1]

    (Note: brackets indicate the translator’s commentary. Highlights and underlines are by A.R.J. for emphasis.)


The religion of Islam began with a young Arab caravan leader named Muhammad born about 570 A.D. into the ruling Koreish tribe in Mecca, a bustling city in Arabia on the caravan route near the Red Sea.  His father, Abdullah, died before he was born and his mother died when he was six.  He was then taken in by his grandfather, Abdul Mutalleb.  His grandfather died two years later and he was reared by his paternal uncle, Abu Taleb.  At age twenty-five he was employed by a wealthy widow named Khadija who was so impressed that she married him.  This gave him freedom to meditate and pursue activities of his choosing. 


The Arab tribes mostly believed in many gods, of whom Allah, the moon god, was considered the greatest.  Mecca had a cubical structure called the Caaba, reputably built by Abraham, over which the Koreish held guardianship, in which the tribes kept many images and a black meteorite stone. In the area of Mecca, on his caravan travels, and through members of his wife’s family, Muhammad became acquainted with the teachings of Jews and Nestorian Christians who believed in one God and rejected the Trinity. He drew heavily upon this experience in developing his own religious perspective. 


He spent much time in meditation in the wilderness three miles from Mecca.  In the year 610 A.D., when Muhammad was about 40 years old, he claimed that the angel, Gabriel, appeared to him in a dream[2] in a cave on Mount Hira.  The angel commanded him to “read,”[3] telling him he was a prophet of God. Fearing this was from an evil spirit, in a trembling and agitated state of mind, he returned to his wife, Khadija, and told her what had taken place.  She consulted her cousin, Waraka bin Naufal, who assured Muhammad that he had received a heavenly visit just as had come to Moses, and he was to be a prophet of his people.  He later received another vision telling him to “rise and warn.[4] Thus, in 613 A.D. he began publicly preaching in Mecca that Allah was the only true God. 


As his following increased, opposition grew.  His uncle died, under whom he had received protection at Mecca.[5]  His wife also died, and in September, 622 A.D. he fled on his famed Hegira, to Yathrib, later called, “Medina,” where he and his followers were accepted.  


While there, he raided camel caravans of the Koroishites from Mecca. [6]  On one raid they learned of it in advance and sent a force of around 1,000 against him.[7]  However, with some 300 Muhammad gave them a resounding defeat.  This was called, the Battle of Badr,[8] which greatly enhanced his acceptance as a prophet. 


The following year (625 A.D.) the Meccans, in retaliation, sent a force of around 3,000 against the Muslims in Medina.  They inflicted a serious defeat at the battle of Uhud,[9] in which Muhammad was wounded and many of his men slain. Muhammad scarcely escaped with his life.[10]


Two years later, in 627 A.D., the Koroishites mounted a full-scale attack on Medina with 10,000 troops.  Muhammad had the Medinians dig a deep trench so as to render the assault with horsemen ineffective.  After besieging the city for several weeks the Meccans finally gave up and went home.


In 630 A.D. Muhammad returned to Mecca with a large force and it submitted.  He removed the idols in the Kaaba, and made it the center of Muslim worship.  The black stone, however, was retained and remains to this day an object of veneration.


From that time, Muhammad sent armies to forcibly subjugate and incorporate the surrounding nations into Islam.  He died in 632 A.D. at the age of 63.


After Muhammad’s death his successors pursued the Saracen conquests, spreading the Muslim religion throughout Arabia, Persia and on to India and China to the east.  To the west it advanced through Palestine, Egypt, across North Africa, up through Spain and across the Pyrenees Mountains into France, where it was finally turned back in 732 AD by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours. From Syria, Muslim forces also slowly pushed their way up through Asia Minor.  They were resisted for centuries by the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire whose capital was Constantinople, situated on a peninsula that overlooked the Bosphorus and Dardanelle Straits, the waterway between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.


Islam was eventually embraced by the Seljuk Turks.  In 1057 Togrul was commissioned by the Caliph at Baghdad as temporal lieutenant of the vicar of the prophet[11] and they expanded their control over most of the Saracen Empire.  In 1258 the Mongols conquered Baghdad and were soon absorbed into Islam. Finally, the Ottoman Turks rose to power and swept across the Bosphorus into Europe and conquered Greece.  Constantinople fell in 1453 and was renamed Istanbul. Islam reached its zenith under Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent who died in 1566, after which the empire began to decline.


In 1492 they were driven from power in Spain.  In eastern Europe, their conquest rolled on up to the doors of Hungary and Austria, where in 1683 it was finally defeated at the gates of Vienna by Sobieski and driven back across the Danube.


Expansion and colonization by England, Russia and France (especially Napoleon in Egypt), during the 17th --19th centuries, and fragmentation within, hastened it's decline.  During World War I, it allied itself with Germany, and following it's defeat fell mostly under English and French domination in 1924.  In World War II it again was allied with Germany and lost.  It then became allied with the Soviet Union but when that fell apart they were left mostly a group of ineffectual states.  However, with the discovery of oil their fortunes and influence around the world have greatly improved.


Islam is the second largest religion in the world, with Christianity almost twice as large.  Its empire remains as a widespread group of volatile autocratic states warring within and against each other, and especially against non-Muslims.  While at times over the centuries, Islam in many areas has been relatively tolerant, its policies of restriction, taxation and humiliation[12] have generally suppressed Christianity in lands under Muslim control.


Today Islam is mostly divided into two sects, Sunnites (more liberal, comprising about 80% of Muslims) spread around the world, and Shiites, (generally more fundamentalist, about 10%) primarily centered in Iran. There are also other smaller sects and sub-sects.


Sunnites accept Abu Bakr (632-634) and Uthman (644-656) as caliphs (“successors”) following the death of Muhammad.  Shiites believe that Ali (656-661), fourth caliph and son-in-law of Muhammad, was the rightful heir.  Ali was assassinated in 661 AD, by Muawiyah, the founder of the Umayyad Dynasty, who took his place as Caliph. This ignited the fiery schism between Sunnites and Shiites that burns to this day, primarily centered in Iran.


Islam’s holy book is the Koran, containing 114 Surahs, or chapters, (about 10,000 words smaller than the New Testament) written in poetic style, claimed to be the words of God, given to Muhammad in visions.  These are not in chronological order and there are two different numbering systems for the verses, which sometimes creates confusion in locating citations. Longer Surah’s are mostly closer to the beginning. 


Muhammad, is called “the prophet who can neither read nor write.”[13] According to this, he wrote nothing.  His followers memorized his teachings or recorded them on various types of materials.  Muhammad died in 632 A.D. and for a while these records were somewhat disorganized with conflicting versions.  During the battles following the death of Muhammad, after some of those who memorized portions of the Koran had been killed in the Battle of Yamama, concern arose that the teachings would be lost.  During the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Uthman (644-656 A.D.), the records were collected and integrated into one book.  Other versions of the Koran, along with the source materials, were then ordered destroyed.[14]


To interpret the Koran and to find guidance in their daily lives, Muslims also follow the practices and traditions (Sunnah) of the Prophet which include his sayings (Hadiths).  (See at the end of this study.)


Muslims represent Islam as based on five pillars:

  1. Affirmation that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet
  2. Five daily ritual prayers (Salat) facing Mecca; (Surah 2:144, 149-150; 33:35)
  3. Fasting (Sawm) from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan; (Surah 2:183-187; 33:35)
  4. Making the pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if financially capable; (Surah 2:197-200; 22:26-29)
  5. Paying a tax (Zakat) of 2-1/2% on one's capital.




Muslims also hold to a body of religious law, developed early in Islamic history, called al-Shari'ah. This code is considered to be the embodiment of the complete will of God and it governs all areas of Muslim lives-- social, economic, political, moral, and spiritual.  In Islamic law, there is no distinction between secular and religious.  Muslims are expected to work to establish this as the law of any nation in which they gain dominance--and indeed, throughout the whole world.  The ambition of many Muslims is to restore the Caliphate as a “United States of Islam.”


Historically, in nations that have come under Islamic law, Christians have been required to pay an oppressive tax (Jizya—protection money) and have been repressed and severely restricted in the practice of their religion.  The alternatives have been paying tribute, conversion, or the sword.


Surah 9:29 [#113] Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.



Not only did the Christians and Jews have to pay a repressive tax, they had to be humiliated. History tells us what that means in practical terms:


"Thus, for Mahmud ibn 'Umar al-Zamakhshari (1075-1144), author of a standard commentary on the Qur'an, the meaning of these words is that 'the jizya shall be taken from them with belittlement and humiliation. He [the dhimmi, i.e., the non Muslim subject of the Muslim state] shall come in person, walking not riding. When he pays, he shall stand, while the tax collector sits. The collector shall seize him by the scruff of the neck, shake him, and say: 'Pay the jizya', and when he pays it he shall be slapped on the nape of his neck.' Other authorities add similar details - such as, for example, that the dhimmi must appear with bent back and bowed head, that the tax collector must treat him with disdain and even with violence, seizing his beard and slapping his cheeks, and the like. A piece of symbolism prescribed in many law books is the dhimmi's hand must be below, the tax collector's hand above, when the money changes hands. The purpose of all this is made clear by a fifteenth-century jurist of the rigorous Hanbalai school who, after prescribing these and similar acts of ritual humiliation to be performed in public 'so that all may enjoy the spectacle,' concludes: 'Perhaps in the end they will come to believe in God and His Prophet, and thus be delivered from this shameful yoke.' [15]


Islam recognizes no other religion as valid.


Surah 3:85 [#89] If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (Submission to Allah), Never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (their selves in the hell fire).


Surah 98:6. [#100] Verily, those who disbelieve (in the religion of Islâm, the Qur'ân and Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and Al-Mushrikűn will abide in the Fire of Hell. They are the worst of creatures.




In general, Christians are prohibited from anything that might influence Muslims religiously.

-They are not allowed to teach, broadcast or invite Muslims to listen to their beliefs.

-They are forbidden to pray or read their sacred books, where it may be heard by Muslims.

-They are not allowed to publish or advertise religious books or periodicals for the public.

-They are not allowed to publicly display Christian emblems.

-They are not allowed to build new churches, and often are highly restricted in making repairs to old ones. Compounding this, Muslims have often demolished non-Muslim houses of worship or turned them into Mosques.

-In many Muslim controlled areas Christians have been given no protection, humiliated, discriminated against in the courts, their possessions seized or destroyed, subjected to violence, and killed.


Criticism of Islam, especially after taking the oath of a believer, is prohibited upon pain of death.


Surah 9:12. [#113] But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism then fight (you) the leaders of disbelief (chiefs of Quraish - pagans of Makkah) - for surely their oaths are nothing to them - so that they may stop (evil actions).


Along with many other rules and customs, Muslims are bound to a code regulating food and cleanliness.  This excludes certain kinds of food such as pork, carnivorous animals and birds, blood, animals not ritually slaughtered, and animals sacrificed in a name other than Allah. (Surah 5:3; 16:115).  Intoxicants, such as alcoholic drinks and drugs are prohibited (Surah 2:219; 5:90-91). It requires various washings and separations from participation in religious activities during menstrual cycles etc. Gambling and Usury are also prohibited: (Surah 2:275). 


General information:

Friday is the Muslim day of weekly special observance. (Surah 62:9)

Buildings for religious meeting and activities are called “Mosques.”

Ministers who lead the Mosques are called “Imams.”

Religious scholars are called, “Mullahs.”

Their proclamations of legally binding interpretations of the Quran applied to a contemporary issue are called “fatwa’s.”

Muslims circumcise their sons and some, even their daughters.






The Koran calls Christians and Jews “people of the Book” (5:68; 29:46-47). 


Surah 5:68. [#112] Say (O Muhammad SAW) "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing (as regards guidance) till you act according to the Taurât (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), and what has (now) been sent down to you from your Lord (the Qur'ân)." Verily, that which has been sent down to you (Muhammad SAW) from your Lord increases in many of them their obstinate rebellion and disbelief. So be not sorrowful over the people who disbelieve.


As “people of the Book,” Christians rely on what the Book –the Bible, says (Mark 14:49; John 10:35; 2Timothy 3:16-17; 2Peter 1:20).  Thus, in this discussion, we compare the teachings of Islam with those of the Bible.[16]  


Muslims believe in Moses and Jesus. 

Surah 3:84 [#89] Say (O Muhammad SAW): "We believe in Allâh and in what has been sent down to us, and what was sent down to Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qűb (Jacob) and Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qűb (Jacob)] and what was given to Műsa (Moses), 'Iesa (Jesus) and the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between one another among them and to Him (Allâh) we have submitted (in Islâm)." 


However, the Muslim view of Moses and Jesus differs greatly from the “Book” of Jews and Christians.  Muslims regard Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet of all.  Some will deny they regard Muhammad as superior but their passion about him is clearly shown when all around the world they will riot and burn down the embassies of countries where some newspaper prints an uncomplimentary cartoon of Muhammad.  They don’t do this when Jesus is blasphemed.


While Muslims profess to accept the writings of Moses, the Psalms, and the Gospels, (Surah 21:105) in fact they consider these to be corrupted and unreliable. 

Surah 3:78. [#89] There is among them a section who distort the Book with their tongues: (As they read) you would think it is a part of the Book, but it is no part of the Book; and they say,  "That is from Allah," but it is not from Allah. It is they who tell a lie against Allah, and (well) they know it!

Surah 5:15. [#112] O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad SAW) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. Indeed, there has come to you from Allâh a light (Prophet Muhammad SAW) and a plain Book (this Qur'ân). (See also Surah 5:14 -ARJ)


Muslims only accept what agrees with the Koran and Muslim teachings.  They cite the Bible as authority only insofar as it can be construed as supporting their beliefs, or to be criticized.  Their main argument is that the Bible cannot be relied upon since we do not have the original manuscripts. 


However, neither do they have the original manuscripts of the Koran.  Mohammad wrote nothing.  His words were written down by others on various objects. There were no complete copies of the Koran prior to it being put together by Uthman years after the death of the prophet.  Some things had even been lost and there was disagreement as to what should be included.  When it was completed, the original source documents were destroyed.


The fact is that copies and portions of Christian scriptures have been found as early as the second century A.D., and we have much of it quoted in many other documents that go farther back than that.  The variations between manuscripts are minor.  The Old Testament copies go back as early as 150 BC. The claim that the content of the original documents has been greatly modified is a gross misrepresentation.  


There are many differences between Christianity and Islam but two key issues place them poles apart—


A.     Who Jesus is.

B.     What Jesus did.




Islam teaches that Jesus was only a great prophet, just one of many.*


*See list of prophets in the Koran at the end of this study.


Surah 5:75. [#112] The Messiah ['Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a Siddiqah [i.e. she believed in the words of Allâh and His Books (see Verse 66:12)]. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while Allâh does not eat). Look how We make the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to them, yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth).


Surah 4:171: [#92] O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allâh aught but the truth. The Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allâh and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Rűh) created by Him; so believe in Allâh and His Messengers. Say not: "Three (trinity)!" Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allâh is (the only) One Ilâh (God), Glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allâh is All­Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.


The “Book” (Greek: “Biblos”> English: “Bible”) teaches that Jesus is “God” (John 1:1; Isaiah 9:6; John 20:28; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:6-8). He existed in the beginning as the “Word” (John 1:1).  Through him all things were created (John 1:3; Col. 1:16; Hebrews 1:10).  He is to be worshipped (Heb 1:6).  He was in the form of God, but emptied himself (Philippians 2:6-7), and was made flesh (John 1:14).  He was the “fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Colossians 2:9).  He came as the Messiah (Greek: “Christ”—anointed one) as prophesied in the Old Testament Scriptures.


For further evidence that Jesus is part of the one Triune Godhead, see the article WHO IS JESUS—GOD OR “A GOD”? by A. Ralph Johnson



The “Book” of Christians contends that Jesus was crucified on the cross for the sins of the whole world, was raised from the dead, ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of the Father until all things are subdued under his feet.  (1Cor 15:1-26)


Muslims deny that Jesus died on the cross and was raised from the dead, or that his death provides forgiveness of sin.




Muslim apologists commonly deny that in John, chapter 1, Jesus was “the Word.” 


We would note here that while the Koran denies that Jesus is God, it does call Jesus “the Word.


Surah 3:39. [#89]  Then the angels called him, while he was standing in prayer in Al-Mihrâb (a praying place or a private room), (saying): "Allâh gives you glad tidings of Yahya (John), confirming (believing in) the Word from Allâh [i.e. the creation of 'Iesa (Jesus) >>, the Word from Allâh ("Be!" - and he was!)], noble, keeping away from sexual relations with women, a Prophet, from among the righteous."


Surah 3:45. [#89] (Remember) when the angels said: "O Maryam (Mary)! Verily, Allâh gives you the glad tidings of a Word ["Be!" - and he was! i.e. 'Iesa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary)] from Him, his name will be the Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), held in honour in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allâh."


Surah 4:171. [#92] O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allâh aught but the truth. The Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allâh and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Rűh) created by Him;…”


What does the Christian “Book” say?


John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.


Muslim apologists contend that in John 1, the “Word” simply meant the command of God.


Akbarally Meherally [17] reads John 1:1 as,

In the beginning was the spoken word, command and the 'spoken word, command' was with God, and the 'spoken word, command' was Divine.”


However, the passage does not say “the Word was Divine.” The original Greek says, “the Word was GOD” (theos).  (cf. “theos” in Mat 1:23; Mark 12:29)


John 1:2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.


Muslims claim this only indicates that by God’s command all things were created.


John 1:4In him was life; and the life was the light of men.


Here again they read it “Through him [the command of God] was life.”


John 1:10 poses a serious difficulty for this view. 

He was in the world and the world was made by him.” 


John 1:14 is even more troubling to them.

And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.”


John 1:15 clearly shows that Jesus existed before John was born.

John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spoke, He that comes after me is preferred before me: for he was before me.”


This is reiterated in John 1:30.

This is he of whom I said, After me comes a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me.”


John 3:13. And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.


John 3:17. For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him


John 6:62. What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?


John 8:58.  Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was born, I am. (ASV)


John 17:5. And now, Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.


Philippians 2:6.  who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, 7 but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men;


Colossians 1:16. For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: 17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.


Hebrews 1:2.  Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;


Hebrews 1:6.  And again, when he brings in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.


Hebrews 1:10And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands: (Spoken to “the son” verse 8.  Compare Psalms 102:25-28)


Revelation 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

Rev. 1:17. And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last: 18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

Rev. 22:12. Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to render to each man according as his work is. 13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. ...22:16 “I Jesus”....


Isaiah 48:12. Hearken unto me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last. 13 Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: when I call unto them, they stand up together....

16 Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord GOD, and his Spirit, hath sent me.




A.     The Koran denies that Jesus is the “son” of God


Surah 9:30 [#113] And the Jews say: 'Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allâh, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allâh. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allâh's Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth!

[see also: 19:35, 37, 88, 91, 92]


What does the “Book” say?


1.      The Gospels (Injeel) many times call Jesus the son of God


Luke 1:35And the angel [Gabriel—Luke 1:26] answered and said unto her, The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee: wherefore also the holy thing which is begotten shall be called the son of God.


Mark 1:1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the son of God.


John 1:34. And I have seen, and have borne witness that this is the son of God.


The identification of Jesus as the son of God, and the king of Israel comes from Psalms 6:6.

Yet I have set my KING Upon my holy hill of Zion. 7 I will tell of the decree: Jehovah said unto me, thou art my son; This day have I begotten thee….

11 Serve Jehovah with fear, And rejoice with trembling. 12 Kiss the son, lest he be angry, and ye perish in the way, For his wrath will soon be kindled. Blessed are all they that take refuge in him. (cf. Acts 13:33; Heb.1:5)


John 3:17. For God sent not the son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him. 18 He that believes on him is not judged: he that believes not hath been judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten son of God.


John 5:25. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour cometh, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the son of God; and they that hear shall live. 26 For as the Father hath life in himself, even so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself: 27 and he gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man.


John 9:35. Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and finding him, he said, Dost thou believe on the son of God?  36 He answered and said, And who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him?  37 Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and he it is that speaks with thee.  38 And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.


John 20:31. but these are written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God; and that believing ye may have life in his name.


-Thus, in the Old Testament, David the Prophet, quotes God calling the Messiah, “my son” (Psalms 2:7-9 cf. Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; 5:5).

-The angel, Gabriel, announced Jesus as “the Son of God.” (Luke 1:35)

-The Jews were expecting the Christ, the “Son of God” (John 1:49)

-Jesus claimed to be the “Son of God” (John 3:16-18; 9:35-38)

-The apostles, who were taught by Jesus and inspired by the Holy Spirit, said he was the “Son of God”  (John 1:49)


2.      God the Father, speaking from heaven in the presence of witnesses, confirmed his relationship with Jesus as His “son” on three separate occasions.


a. AT HIS BAPTISM, attested by all three synoptic Gospel writers:


Matthew 3:16. And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:  17 And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

See also Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22.




Matthew 17:5. [On the mount of transfiguration] While he [Peter] yet spoke, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him.

 See also Mark 9:7 and Luke 9:35.


This is further confirmed by the apostle Peter.


2Peter 1:17. [Transfiguration] For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 18 And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount.




Jesus also received direct recognition when he addressed God as his “father.


John 12:28 Father, glorify thy name. There came therefore a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.


This is significant because, unlike Muhammad, who only bore witness of himself, the authority of Jesus was established by the witness of God the Father.


John 5:30. I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me. 31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. 32 There is another that bears witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesses of me is true. 33 Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth. 34 But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved. 35 He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. 36 But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. 37 And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.


Unlike Muhammad, many bore supernatural witness of Jesus.  Impartial witnesses are important because anyone can bear witness of himself.  Indeed, the Koran itself requires witnesses in criminal cases (Surah 24:4-6, 13).  If witnesses are required to establish guilt, how much more is it necessary to have witnesses establish the validity of the law that imposes guilt.

-Moses and the prophets foretold the coming of Jesus (Luke 24:27, 44-47; John 1:45; 5:46)

-The angel Gabriel announced him (Luke 1:26, 30-33).

-John the Baptist declared him (John 1:29, 36; 10:41).

-God the Father witnessed for him on three different occasions – his baptism (Matthew 3:16), at the transfiguration (Matthew 17:5), and on the occasion of John 12:28-30 near the time of his death.

-Three of the twelve apostles (Matthew, John and Peter) and two other Gospel writers (Mark and Luke), recorded God’s witness to them that he was God’s son.

-Paul, the apostle, had miraculous witness born of Jesus (Acts 9:5, 17; 22:8, 15; 26:15) and testified of him.

-Even the demons confessed that he was the son of God (Luke 4:41).


3.      Jesus repeatedly called God his “Father.”  The following are just a few examples.


John 20:17Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father:


Matthew 10:32-33. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. 33 But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven.


Matthew 11:27. All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knows the Son, but the Father; neither knows any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. (cf. Luke 10:22)


Luke 23:34. Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.


Luke 23:46. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.


John 1:18. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.


John 3:35. The Father loves the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.


John 5:17. But Jesus answered them, My Father works hitherto, and I work. 18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God. 19 Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father do: for whatever things he does, these also does the Son likewise. 20 For the Father loves the Son, and shows him all things that himself doeth: and he will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 21 For as the Father raises up the dead, and quickens them; even so the Son quickens whom he will. 22 For the Father judges no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: 23 That all men should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He that honors not the Son honors not the Father which has sent him….

36 But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. 37 And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.


John 10:29. My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. 30 I and my Father are one.  31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? 33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that you, being a man, make yourself God.


4.      The teaching of the Koran, like that of the Jews and the devil, challenged his claim to be the son of God.


Surah 9:30. [#113]: “…The Christians say: Messiah is the son of allah. … Allah’s curse be on them….”


John 19:7. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he made himself the son of God.


John 10:36. say ye of him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the son of God?


John 5:18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.


Matthew 4:3-7   3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.  4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.  5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,  6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.  7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.


MUSLIM OBJECTION:  Adam was called “the son of God” (Luke 3:38) and Jesus speaks of God as the father of men.  Thus, calling Jesus the son of God is no extraordinary thing.


Why, then, object to Jesus being called the son of God?

Adam’s son-ship was by creation directly from dust. 
Our son-ship is by adoption (Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5). 
But Jesus was the Wordmade flesh” by the Father, as His “only begotten son,” born of virgin (John 1:14, 18; 1John 4:9; Gal 4:4).  See Surah 21:91.


B.     Muslims deny Jesus is the “only begotten son of God.”


They claim that the Greek word, “monogenēs,” translated “only begotten” should properly be translated, “special” or “unique.” Let us begin by observing that this does not really help the Muslim case.  It still recognizes Jesus in a “special” or “unique” relationship as God’s son, born of the virgin Mary.


Surah 21:91. And (remember) she who guarded her chastity [Virgin Maryam (Mary)], We breathed into (the sleeves of) her (shirt or garment) [through Our Rűh ­ Jibrael (Gabriel)][], and We made her and her son ['Iesa (Jesus)] a sign for Al-'Alamin (the mankind and jinns).


What does the “Book” say?


D.    The use of “monogenēs” in the New Testament:


a.       The following passages clearly show the word is used in the sense of an only begotten child.


Luke 7:12. Now when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only [monogenēs] son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her.


Luke 8:42. For he had one only [monogenēs] daughter, about twelve years of age, and she lay a dying. But as he went the people thronged him.


Luke 9:38. And, behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child  [monogenēs].


Hebrews 11:17 (cf. Gen. 22:2 “thine only son”). By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten [monogenēs] son


Isaac was Abraham’s only begotten son by Sarah according to promise. (Gen 21:10-12; Rom 9:7-9) though Abraham did also bear Ishmael by Hagar after the flesh.


Galatians 4:22-23   22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.  23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.


Romans 9:7   7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. 8 That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed9 For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son.


b.   Compare the following concerning Jesus.


John 1:14. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten [monogenēs] of the Father,) full of grace and truth.


John 1:18. No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten [monogenēs] Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.


John 3:16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten [monogenēs] Son, that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.


John 3:18. He that believes on him is not condemned: but he that believes not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten [monogenēs] Son of God.


1John 4:9. In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten [monogenēs] Son into the world, that we might live through him.


E.     The words from which monogenēs is derived


Thayer/Strongs electronic Greek Lexicon Definition

G3439 monogenes 

¤ from #3441 [“monos” –“only”] and #1096 [“ginomai” -- “born”]; TDNT -  4:737,606; adjective

¤ AV - “only begotten” 6 times, “only” 2 times, “only child” 1 time; 9 times total

¤ 1) single of its kind, only

       1a) used  of only sons or daughters (viewed in relation to their parents)

       1b) used of Christ, denotes the only begotten son of God 


Note that Monogenēs is derived from two words, “monos” (#3441) – “only,” and “ginomai” (#1096) -- “made” or “become” 


Psalm 2:7 (Septuagint) “…the Lord said to me, Thou art my Son, to-day have I begotten [ginomai] thee.” -LXE Translation (cf. Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5)


Muslims believe God miraculously created Jesus in the womb of Mary-- a virgin birth.  The “Word” became flesh, born of a woman—the only one ever so begotten by God. 


Surah 21:91. [#73]  And (remember) she who guarded her chastity [Virgin Maryam (Mary)], We breathed into (the sleeves of) her (shirt or garment) [through Our Rűh ­ Jibrael (Gabriel)][], and We made her and her son ['Iesa (Jesus)] a sign for Al-'Alamin (the mankind and jinns).


Sura 3:47. [89] She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me." He said: "So (it will be) for Allâh creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: "Be!" and it is.


John 1:14The word was made [ginomai 1096] flesh.”


Galatians 4:4. but when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth his Son, born [ginomai 1096] of a woman, born [ginomai 1096] under the law


1 Corinthians 15:45So also it is written, The first man Adam was made [ginomai 1096 ] a living soul. The last Adam a life-giving spirit.


John 8:58. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was born [ginomai 1096 ], I am.




What does the “Book” say?


The gospel is the “power of God” (Romans 1:16).  One of the best ways to reach Muslims is to get them to read the Bible and learn what the “Book” really says.  The crucifixion of Jesus and its purpose—the atonement—substitutionary sacrifice of Christ, are the most powerful and central teachings of the Bible. 


Rev 12:11. And they overcame him [the devil] because of the blood of the Lamb,[John 1:29, 36; 1Pet 1:19; Acts 8:32; Rev 17:14; 13:8; 7:14] and because of the word of their testimony; and they loved not their life even unto death.


The Noble version of the Koran says:

(Note: brackets indicate the translator’s commentary. Highlights and underlines are for emphasis by A.R.J.)


Surah 4:157. [#92] And because of their saying (in boast), "We killed Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allâh," - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Iesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not [i.e. 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary) >>>]

4:158. But Allâh raised him ['Iesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he >> is in the heavens). And Allâh is Ever All­Powerful, All­Wise.

4:159. And there is none of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), but must believe in him [‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), as only a Messenger of Allâh and a human being], before his [‘Iesa (Jesus) >> or a Jew's or a Christian's] death (at the time of the appearance of the angel of death). And on the Day of Resurrection, he ['Iesa (Jesus)] will be a witness against them.


Curiously, Surah 19:33 [44] represents Jesus as an infant saying,

"And Salâm (peace) be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!"


Muslim apologists attempt to reconcile this with the explanation that Jesus will return before the resurrection to die and be raised.  This makes no sense.  The Old Testament prophets say that he was to be crucified (Psalms 22:13-18), die (Isaiah 53:8-12), and be raised (Psalms 16:9-10) and the New Testament overwhelmingly declares he came and died and was raised (Acts 2:23-36), yet, according to Muslims, all of this was a grand delusion.  If he did not die as predicted and his message was corrupted, why did he come? Why would he, go away and come back to die and be raised again?  Why was that not accomplished when God sent him the first time?  The Koran fails to indicate that he would go to heaven, then return, die and be raised.  If Jesus died on the cross then the next thing the Surah indicates was his resurrection.


Muslims have had great difficulty with this, even claiming that Jesus was taken alive to heaven and that God made somebody else look like him and be crucified.


Surah 4:157 [#92] - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Iesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man)


Some contend that this was Judas who replaced Jesus on the cross.  This is reflected in the “Gospel of Barnabas” a 14th century forgery made to support Islamic claims.


 “God acted wonderfully, insomuch that Judas was so changed in speech and in face to be like Jesus. The soldiers took Judas and bound him ... So they led him to Mount Calvary, where they used to hang malefactors, and there they crucified him (chap. 216-217).



1.      Nothing is said in the “Book” that would indicate any such thing.

2.      Jesus himself said he was going to be crucified and raised again. (Matthew 20:17-19, 28; 21:39; 26:1-2; Mark 8:31; 10:45; Luke 24:45-48; John 10:11-18; 12:32; Rev. 1:18)

3.      Judas’s death was recorded by two gospel writers.  Matthew 27:3-5 says he “hanged himself.Luke, in Acts 1:16-18 says “falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.”

4.      All four Gospels and other New Testament writings clearly indicate it was Jesus who died on the cross.  Thus, the claim that Judas took the place of Jesus does not fit the account of the inspired writers.

5.      Would Judas, on the cross, have assigned John to care for Mary as his “mother”? (John 19:26-27)

6.      Would Judas have reassured the repentant thief that he would that day be with him in Paradise? (Luke 33:43)

7.      After his resurrection (John 20:20-27), Jesus, not Judas, appeared to the disciples showing holes in his hands and side. It makes no sense that God would have raised Judas to appear to them, representing himself as Jesus.  Nor, if he was not crucified, does it make any sense that Jesus would have appeared and showed such wounds to the disciples.

8.      Most of all, it makes no sense that God would have deceived everyone by making it appear that Jesus died on the cross.  It is totally unreasonable that God would deceive His people into believing such a falsehood resulting in this fundamental Christian teaching spread throughout the earth for thousands of years. 




A.     Jesus himself denied that he had been taken up to God rather than being crucified.


John 20:17   17 Jesus saith to her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended unto the Father:


B.     Jesus was crucified in the sight of many witnesses who personally knew him (John 19:25), including his mother and close friends, and the apostle John who had been with him for over three years.


John, who was especially close to Jesus, through inspiration of the Holy Spirit, said:


John 19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene26. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son! 27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold, thy mother! And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own home. 28 After this Jesus, knowing that all things are now finished, that the scripture might be accomplished, saith, I thirst. 29 There was set there a vessel full of vinegar: so they put a sponge full of the vinegar upon hyssop, and brought it to his mouth. 30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.


John 19:35. Speaking of himself, John said, “he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true: and he knows that he saith true, that ye also may believe. 36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. 37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.”


The soldiers made certain he was dead.


John 19:33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: 34 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.


Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus, who knew him, considered him dead when they put him in the tomb with spices and sealed it—unthinkable if he were injured.


John 19:38 And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus. 39 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. 40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.


The Jewish leaders confirmed his death.


Matthew 27:62-66.  The chief priests and Pharisees witnessed his death and posted a watch to make certain the disciples did not steal the body.


Matthew 28:12-13  12 And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,  13 Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.


Angels at the tomb said he was crucified, died, and was raised.


Matthew 28:5 And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. 6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. 7 And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; (cf. Mark 16:6; Luke 24:4-7, 23)


Luke 24:4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men [cf. 22-23 “angels”] stood by them in shining garments: 5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? 6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spoke unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 7 Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.


After the resurrection there remained no dead body.

Luke 24:2-3  2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.  3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.


If it was Judas who had died and was not raised then what happened to his body? The guards did not have it or they wouldn’t have been afraid and had to lie about it.  They had no motive to take it and their lives depended on being able to protect the tomb.  The Jews did not have it or they would not have had to bribe the guards.  When Christians claimed he was raised the Jews would have simply produced the body.  The Christians did not have it because they had no access to the tomb because of the guards and if they did somebody would have surely let it slip during the persecutions that followed. 


After the crucifixion Jesus appeared and identified himself, indicating he had been raised from the dead. 


John 20:19-29.  Jesus appeared to Thomas and the disciples and showed his hands and feet with the print of the nails and hole in his side.  Clearly, this was the same Jesus that was nailed to the cross and pierced with the spear.  In verse 28, Thomas responded, “My Lord and my God.”   Verse 29 Jesus said that Thomas saw “me.” 


Luke 24:36-46. Jesus appeared to his disciples, denying he was a spirit because he had flesh and bone.  He affirmed that he had fulfilled the scriptures that prophesied that he was to be put to death and raised the third day.  Would Jesus have lied?


C.     Old Testament prophets predicted his death:


Isaiah, the prophet, said:

53:8. He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken. 9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. 10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. 11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, (and) shall be satisfied: by the knowledge of himself shall my righteous servant justify many; and he shall bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. [cf. Surah 38:48 “Isaiah...among the best.”]


David, the prophet, revealed the heart of Jesus on the cross:

Psalms 22:14. I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: My heart is like wax; it is melted within me. 15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaves to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death. 16 For dogs have compassed me: a company of evil-doers have inclosed me; they pierced my hands and my feet. 17 I may count all my bones; they look and stare upon me. 18 They part my garments among them, and upon my vesture do they cast lots.


Zechariah the prophet:

Zechariah 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplication; and they shall look unto me whom they have pierced… (compare John 19:34)


D.    Jesus predicted his own death:


Matthew 20:17.  And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them, 18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death, 19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again.


Matthew 26:1. And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.


Mark 8:31. And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. (cf. Matthew 16:21)


Luke 24:45.  Then opened he their mind, that they might understand the scriptures; 46 and he said unto them, Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer, and rise again from the dead the third day; 47 and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name unto all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 48 Ye are witnesses of these things.


Matthew 20:28. Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.


Mk 10:45. For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.


Matthew 21:39.  Jesus told a parable of his rejection by the Jews and the kingdom being given to another nation, saying that they “slew the son (compare Mark 12:8; Luke 20:15).


John 10:11. I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd gives his life for the sheep.12 But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, sees the wolf coming, and leaves the sheep, and flees: and the wolf catches them, and scatters the sheep. 13 The hireling flees, because he is an hireling, and cares not for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. 15 As the Father knows me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd. 17 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. 18 No man takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.


John 12:32. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. 33 This he said, signifying what death he should die.  (compare John 18:32)


Revelation 1:18. I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death


OBJECTION:  “As Jonah was three days and nights in the belly of the whale, so shall the son of man be in the heart of the earth” (Matthew 12:40).  Jonah was not dead so neither was Jesus.


This claim is based on the “swoon” theory that Jesus (not someone else, as many Muslims claim) was crucified and went to the grave, but did not die.  However, this conflicts with the Koran’s own statement and is decisively destroyed by the evidence. 


Surah 4:157 [#92] - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Iesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man),

4:158. But Allâh raised him ['Iesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he >> is in the heavens). 


Note that if Jesus was not crucified and another man was killed then Jesus’ body could not have been taken down and put into the grave.  Furthermore, the Koran not only states that Jesus was not killed but also that he was not crucified.  


The claim that Jesus was crucified but did not die conflicts with the Koran.  It conflicts with the prophecies of the Old Testament. It contradicts Jesus’ own predictions of his death on the cross. It denies the declaration of the inspired New Testament writers.  And, it flies in the face of all of the observations and close examinations of his body.  Furthermore, the blood and water that came out of his side from the spear that was plunged into him clearly established his death.  Finally, there is the problem that after his resurrection he further confirmed that he had been dead. 


Matthew 12:40 does not say that as Jonah was “alive for three days in the whale’s belly that Jesus would be alive for three days in the grave.  It says that as Jonah was “in” the belly of the whale for three days and nights, so the son of man would be three days and nights “in” the heart of the earth.


Analogies must not be pressed beyond the stated specifics.  For example, Jesus was not like Jonah who was in the whale’s belly for fleeing from God, and he was not in there with seaweed wrapped around his head crying out in repentance (Jonah 2). 


While the body of Jesus was dead in the grave (cf. James 2:25; Ecc. 12:6), his spirit was alive with God (Luke 23:43; 1Pet 3:18-20).  He cited as a sign that he would raise his own body (John 2:18-22; cf. John 10:17).


E.      The inspired Gospel writers declared his death:


Matthew 27:5 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.

50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.


Mark 15:37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.


Luke 23:43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise. 44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. 45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. 46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.


John 19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.


F.      Peter, an inspired apostle, declared that Jesus died and was raised.  This is recorded both by Luke in Acts and by Peter in his own epistle.


Acts 1:21 Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, 22 Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection.


Acts 2:23 Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain: 24 Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it.

32 This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.


Acts 3:14 But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; 15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.


1Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,


1Peter 1:18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; 19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, 21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.


1Peter 3:18 Because Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God; being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;


G.    Paul, an inspired apostle, likewise testified to his death, resurrection, and appearances to many, including himself.  Paul called this "the gospel"—the "good news" – the central doctrine of Christianity.


1 Corinthians 15:1-4  Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;  2 By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. 7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also [cf. Acts 9:3-5, 17; 22:6-8; 26:14-15], as of one born out of due time.


H.    Roman records confirm that Jesus was crucified.


Tacitus [120 AD] The founder of this name, Christ, had been executed in the reign of Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate ( Annuals, xv.44: multitudo ingens [3]).


Lucian of Samosata [115-200] He was second only to that one whom they still worship today, the man in Palestine who was crucified because he brought this new form of initiation into the world” --The Death of Peregrinus (§11)


Mara bar Serapion:   [sometime after 73 AD] ...Or the Jews [by killing]” their wise king, because their kingdom was taken away at that very time? –The Jesus of the New Testament, Robert E Van Voorst


I.       The early Christian Fathers, too numerous here to cite, often spoke of the death of Jesus.  The following is one who cites pagan accusations.


Minucius Felix, records a dispute between a Pagan named, Caecilius, and a Christian named Octavius.  Caecilius makes accusations that the Christians worshipped a crucified criminal.  –Chapter 29


J.      Jewish sources:


It was taught: On the day before the Passover they hanged Jesus. A herald went before him for forty days [proclaiming], “He will be stoned, because he practiced magic and enticed Israel to go astray. Let anyone who knows anything in his favor come forward and plead for himl’ But nothing was found in his favor, and they hanged him on the day before the Passover. (Talmud: b. Sanhedrin 43a)


Muslims try to counter this by claiming that the Bible has been corrupted.  However, the fact is that David, Isaiah, all four Gospel writers, Peter, Paul, and the Hebrews writer plus Roman and Jewish writers, agree that the Jesus was put to death.  The writers of the Old Testament who prophesied his crucifixion would have had no bias towards Jesus in this.  Should “the people of the Book” believe Muhammad’s unsupported claim, or the collective prophets and apostles who Muhammad himself recognized as speaking from God? (see list of recognized prophets at end of this study.)



This is one of the most central and crucial teachings of Christianity. 


1 Corinthians 15:1-4  Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;  2 By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.  3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;  4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

15:17   17 And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.


The magnificent extent of the love of God is manifested in this one grand act—that God’s own son came down from his throne in heaven, took the form of lowly man, experienced the struggles and temptations of this life, and voluntarily give himself as a sacrifice in our place.  This is so overwhelming that those who do not have the illumination of God’s Spirit, simply cannot comprehend it.  Through this act, he manifested his limitless love for us (Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 2:4; 5:4; 1John 4:10).  Through this act, we know that he feels our struggles (Heb. 2:17-18; 4:15; 5:2). Through this act we gain assurance that he will receive us into His heavenly kingdom (Rom. 5:8-10; 8:31-32).  Through this act he set us the example of how to respond to our enemies (1Peter 2:21).


What does the “Book” say?


A.   The sacrificial system of the Old Testament foreshadowed the substitutionary sacrifice of Christ. 


Abraham, in Gen 22, was commanded to substitute a lamb for Isaac.  Muslims themselves recognize this substitution in their claim that this happened to Ishmael.


Exodus 12.  The Passover blood on the doorposts and lintels was substituted for the lives of the firstborn in the houses of Egypt.


1Corinthians 5:7 Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, even as ye are unleavened. For our Passover also has been sacrificed, (even) Christ:


B.   Isaiah the prophet predicted the substitutionary sacrifice.


Isaiah 53:8 He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken. 9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. 10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, (and) shall be satisfied: by the knowledge of himself shall my righteous servant justify many; and he shall bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.


C.    John 1:29, 36. John the Baptist prophet called Jesus “the Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world.” 


D.   Jesus spoke of his death for mankind.


Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45. Jesus said that he came to give his life a ransom for many.  (cf. 1Tim 2:6) 


Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; 1Corinthians 11:25, 28. For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.


E.   Paul, the apostle, explained how Jesus died for all men.


Romans 3:24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: 25 whom God set forth (to be) a propitiation, through faith, in his blood, to show his righteousness because of the passing over of the sins done aforetime, in the forbearance of God;


Romans 5:6. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.  7 For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.  8 But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.  9 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.  10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.  11 And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.  12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:  13 (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law.  14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.  15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.  16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.  17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)  18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.  19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.  20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:  21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.


1Corinthians 15:3. For I delivered unto you first of all that which also I received: that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;


2Corinthians 5:15. and he died for all, that they that live should no longer live unto themselves, but unto him who for their sakes died and rose again.


2Corinthians 5:21. Him who knew no sin he made (to be) sin on our behalf; that we might become the righteousness of God in him.


Galatians 3:13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree:


Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace,


Ephesians 2:13; Colossians 1:20.     But now in Christ Jesus ye that once were far off are made nigh in the blood of Christ.


Ephesians 5:2. and walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for an odor of a sweet smell.


Colossians 1:14  14 in whom we have our redemption, the forgiveness of our sins:


Colossians 1:20   20 and through him to reconcile all things unto himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross;


1Timothy 2:6; Titus 2:14. who gave himself a ransom for all; the testimony (to be borne) in its own times;


F.    The writer of Hebrews


Hebrews 9:11. But Christ having come a high priest of the good things to come, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, 12 nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling them that have been defiled, sanctify unto the cleanness of the flesh: 14 how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? 15 And for this cause he is the mediator of a new covenant, that a death having taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant, they that have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. …


Hebrews 9:24 For Christ entered not into a holy place made with hands, like in pattern to the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear before the face of God for us: 25 nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters into the holy place year by year with blood not his own; 26 else must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once at the end of the ages hath he been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. 27 And inasmuch as it is appointed unto men once to die, and after this (cometh) judgment; 28 so Christ also, having been once offered to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time, apart from sin, to them that wait for him, unto salvation.


Hebrews 10:10. By which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.


Hebrews 13:12. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered without the gate.


G.    Peter, the apostle.


1Peter 1:18. knowing that ye were redeemed, not with corruptible things, with silver or gold, from your vain manner of life handed down from your fathers; 19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb without spot, (even the blood) of Christ: who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree, that we, having died unto sins, might live unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye were healed.


1Peter 2:24  24 who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree, that we, having died unto sins, might live unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye were healed.


1Peter 3:18. Because Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God; being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;


H.   John, the beloved apostle


1John 1:7. but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses from all sin.


1John 2:2. and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world


1John 4:10. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son (to be) the propitiation for our sins.


Revelation 1:5. and from Jesus Christ, (who is) the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loves us, and loosed us from our sins by his blood;


Revelation 7:14. And I say unto him, My lord, you know. And he said to me, These are they that come of the great tribulation, and they washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.




Surah 7:157 [#39] Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad SAW) whom they find written with them in the Taurât (Torah) (Deut, xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16)...”


Surah 61:6. [#109] “And remember, Jesus, The son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel!  I am the apostle of God (Sent) to you confirming The Law (which came) Before me, and giving Glad Tidings of an Apostle To come after me, Whose name shall be Ahmad.”




However, not even in the Koran is Muhammad called the “comforter.”  It says he was, “an Apostle.” 


What does the “Book” say?


Nowhere in the New Testament does Jesus say that Muhammad was to come.  Muslims argue that in John 14:16, when Jesus said he would send “another comforter,” he was indicating that it would be another human like himself.  However, the “comforter” is specified as being “the Holy Spirit” (John 14:26).  Luke 24:39 indicates this was not a human. “A spirit has not flesh and bones.”


Some Muslim apologists claim that the word translated, “comforter” from the Greek, paraklētos, in John 14:16, 26; 15:26 and 16:17 was in the original “periklutos.”  They claim this refers to Muhammad, who’s name means “The praised one.” 

Periklutos” means “famous” (see Liddell & Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon)



First, “periklutos” is an entirely different word, having the prefix, “peri..” (#4012 “around”) and is never found in these passages in any ancient manuscript. 

Paraklētos” (#3875), found here, is formed with the prefix, “para…,” (#3844beside).  “Paraklētos” means “helper” or “defender.


Muhammad fails to meet the specifics of the passage.


John 14:26.  Jesus told his disciples that The Comforter was to bring to their remembrance all things he said to them.


Muhammad did not bring anything Jesus taught to the remembrance of the disciples of Jesus, much less “all” things.  Muhammad was born several centuries after the apostles of Jesus were dead.


John 14:16.  The Comforter was to be given to “you” disciples to whom Jesus was speaking and remain with them “forever.


OBJECTION: Muslim apologists translate “forever,” as “into the age (to come)” and claim that “spirit of truth” is Muhammad, not the Holy Spirit. 


a.       Muhammad was not given to the disciples of Jesus.  He was born over 450 years after they died.

b.      Muhammad did not remain “forever,” nor even through the “age.” He died while his religion was just getting started and has been gone for centuries.  The Holy Spirit still is with Christians and dwells in them.


John 14:17 even the Spirit of truth: whom the world cannot receive; for it beholds him not, neither knows him: ye know him; for he abides with you, and shall be in you.


You know him.”   The Apostles certainly did not know Muhammad.


He dwells with you.”  Muhammad did not dwell with them.  The Holy Spirit, in Jesus, was with them (Luke 4:1).


The Comforter was promised to be “in them.  The Holy Spirit could dwell in them. Muhammad could not.


John 15:26-27; 16:17. Jesus was to send the Comforter to the apostles. 

a.       Muhammad was not sent to the apostles.

b.      If Jesus sent Muhammad that suggests Jesus was superior to Muhammad.


Acts 9:31, written by Luke, used the feminine form of Comforter, to describe what the Holy Spirit did.


31 So the church throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria had peace, being edified; and, walking in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort [#3874 paraklēsis] of the Holy Spirit, was multiplied.



Muslims claim the original text spoke of Muhammad and was changed by Christians.


1.      There is not a shred of evidence supporting such a claim.  All ancient manuscripts have, “paraklētos” in these texts. 

2.      There is no basis for Christians to have made such a change.  Muhammad lived hundreds of years after John, so when John wrote they would have had no reason to change the text since they would not have known who he was.  They had no reason to object to prophets coming after Jesus since there were prophets in the church at the time (Ephesians 4:11-12; Acts 11:28; 15:32; Revelation 11:1-12). 

3.      Since we have scores of copies of the Gospel of John written before the time of Muhammad and all have the word, “paraklētos,” it could not have been changed to discount Muslim claims after Muhammad.


OBJECTION:  Jesus said he had to go away in order for the paraklētos to come.  The paraklētos could not have been the Holy Spirit because the Holy Spirit was with them (John 14:17).


John 14:17 says “he dwells with you and shall be in you.” While on earth, because Jesus was given all of the Spirit (Luke 4:1; John 3:34), they could not receive it.  When he went to be with the Father he sent the Spirit to be in them (John 15:26).


John 7:38. He that believes on me, as the scripture hath said, from within him shall flow rivers of living water. 39 But this spoke he of the Spirit, which they that believed on him were to receive: for the Spirit was not yet given; because Jesus was not yet glorified.


Acts 1:4. And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. 5 For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence.


Acts 2:1. And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.


1Corinthians 2:10. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searches all things, yea, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knows the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knows no man, but the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Ghost teaches; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.


OBJECTION:  Paraklētos is a “he” (masculine gender—indicating a human), not “it.” 


The fact that a Greek noun is masculine does not necessarily indicate it is speaking of a human, nor does a neuter noun indicate it is not human.  For example, “oikos” (#3624 –house) is masculine and all its modifying pronouns are masculine, yet it is not a person.  Similarly, “paidion” (#3813) translated “child” is neuter and personal pronouns modifying it are neuter, yet a child is a human (Matthew 18:2).


Greek noun gender only suggests personality or gender view—as we might speak of a boat as “she” or a child as “it.” It does not necessarily indicate whether or not it is a human.


Pronouns modifying paraklētos are masculine because it is a masculine noun, not because it is human. Masculine gender does not prevent the Holy Spirit from being the “helper” [paraklētos].


Spirits are intelligent beings without flesh and bone (Luke 24:39).  A spirit can exist as a personality without being human. 

-God is a spirit (John 4:24).  

-Angels are Spirits. (Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 1:7, 13-14)

-Demons are spirits. (Luke 9:39-42; 11:24-26; 8:2)


Besides the attributes associated with the paraklētos, in John 16:13-15, personality is attributed to the Holy Spirit in many other passages.

-The Holy Spirit shares the name of the Father and Son (Matthew 28:19)

-The Holy Spirit has a “will (1Corinthians 12:11)

-The Holy Spirit has a “mind” (Romans 8:26-27)

-The Holy Spirit “makes intercession for us with groans” (Romans 8:26)

-The Holy Spirit has intelligence so some things “seemed good” (Acts 15:28)

-The Holy Spirit can be “grieved” (Ephesians 4:30)

-The Holy Spirit “said” things (Acts 13:2, 1Timothy 4:1)

-The Holy Spirit can be “lied to” (Acts 5:3)

-The Holy Spirit can be “blasphemed (Matthew 12:31)


The Holy Spirit was not an angel.

Gen. 1:1-3.  The Spirit of God was God in the creation.

Luke 3:22; 4:1. The Holy Spirit came and dwelt within Jesus

Mat. 28:19.  We are baptized into the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.  

Luke 3:16; John 1:33. Jesus was baptized in the Holy Spirit.

Acts 2:38. The Holy Spirit is a gift. (cf Acts 10:45)

Acts 2:4.  People were filled with the Holy Spirit. (Ex. 31:3; 35:31)

1Cor 6:19. Our body is the temple of the Holy Spirit. (2Tim 1:14)


John 14:26 clearly identifies the Holy Spirit as the Paraklētos.

26 But the Comforter [paraklētos], which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.


Muslim apologists object, citing the MS Codex Syriacus, around 450 A.D. as omitting “holy” in John 14:26. However, the earlier and most reliable manuscripts have it.  Regardless, the omission of “holy” would not indicate paraklētos speaks of a human.  It is plainly identified as “the Spirit” – not a human with flesh and bones (Luke 24:39)


OBJECTION:  Muhammad was the “Spirit of truth” spoken of in John 14:26.


(Note: “Spirit” in the Greek is also neuter here, which conflicts with their claim that paraklētos cannot be the Holy Spirit because pronouns referring to the Holy Spirit are neuter and cannot be speaking of humans.)


Where is Muhammad ever called a “Spirit,” even in the Koran? Muhammad was a human, not a “spirit.”  Spirits do not have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).


OBJECTION:  Wherever “paraklētos” is found it is speaking of people.

Akbarally Meherally, on his website, says:


“In 1John 4:6, the terms “the spirit of truth” and “the spirit of error” are used for human beings.”


ANSWER:  False. 

1.      The passage does not say that “the spirit of truth” is a human being.  It is speaking of the spirit that spoke through the “prophets” (1John. 4:1 cf. 1Peter 1:11). 

2.      This “spirit” was in them (1John 4:4 cf. John. 14:17; 1Peter 1:11; Romans 8:9-11). 




Surah 7:157. [#39] Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad SAW) whom they find written with them in the Taurât (Torah) (Deut, xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16)...”


Muslims contend that because the “Prophet” in Deut. 18 was to be “like unto” Moses, it must refer to Muhammad because in many ways he was like Moses, while Jesus in many ways was different from Moses.


What does the “Book” say?




1.      Jesus had far more similarities to Moses than Muhammad. 

-Like Moses, Jesus was of the seed of Israel (John 1:47).   

-Like Moses (Heb 11:27), Jesus was called out of Egypt (Matthew 2:15). 

-Like Moses (Hebrews 11:25-26), Jesus gave up wealth to help his people (2Corinthians 8:9)

-Like Moses, Jesus was given authority from God (Matthew 17:5; 28:18). 

-Like Moses freed Israel from Egypt (Exodus 3:11-12), Jesus frees his people from the bondage of sin (John 8:34). 

-Like Moses gave the Law to the Jews (2Chron 34:14; John 1:17), Jesus is our lawgiver (1 Corinthians 9:1).  See also Surah 3:49-50.

-Like Moses (Exodus 4:12), God put his word in Jesus’ mouth (John 12:49-50; 17:8).

-Like Moses (Deuteronomy 5:5; Galatians 3:19), Jesus mediates between God and men. (1Timothy 2:5). 

-Like Moses gave the Old Covenant (Deuteronomy 29:1), Jesus gave the New (Hebrews 8:6; 9:15). 

-Like Moses (Exodus 33:10-14), Jesus spoke directly with God in the presence of the people (John 12:27-28)

-Like Moses (Deuteronomy 28:48-68), Jesus foretold the future of Israel (Matthew 23:34-39; 24:15-22; Luke 21:20-24). 

-Like Moses (Deut 4:11-12; 2Sam 22:11), Jesus’ authority as a prophet was confirmed by God’s own voice from heaven in the sight of witnesses (Luke 3:21-22; Mark 9:7-8; John 12:28-30).

-Like Moses, Jesus openly did great signs and miracles that confirmed he was a prophet -- Control over the sea (Exodus 14:21; Matthew 8:27) and miraculous provision of bread (Exodus 16:4, 32; John 6:13-14; Mark 6:52).

(Other signs Jesus did: Mark 4:37-41; John 2:11, 18; 3:2; 4:54; 6:2; 6:14; 7:31; 9:16; 11:47; 12:18, 37; 20:30.  See also the Koran, Surah 5:110)

-Like Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness (Num. 21:8-9), so Jesus was lifted up, giving himself as a ransom for many (John 3:14; 12:32-34; Mat. 20:28).


2.      Unlike Moses and Jesus, the Koran indicates that Muhammad did no great signs.

Surah 6:37. [#55]  And they said: "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord?" Say: "Allâh is certainly Able to send down a sign, but most of them know not."


Surah 29:50. [#85] "Why are signs not sent down to him from his Lord?"

51 "Say: `The signs are with God only, and I am but a clear Warner,' Is it not enough for them that We have sent down to you the book which is rehearsed to them?"


Surah 13:7. [#96]  "And the unbelievers say, `Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord?' "But thou are truly a warner, and to every people a guide."


Surah 13:27. [#96] "The unbelievers say, `Why is not a Sign sent down to him from his Lord?'" Say: "Verily, Allâh sends astray whom He wills and guides unto Himself those who turn to Him in repentance."


(Note: The Koran did claim Muhammad as “splitting the moon” –Surah 54:1.)


In contrast, Jesus did many signs (Matt. 11:5; John 20:30) and when the hypocritical Scribes and Pharisees asked for another, responded by giving them the greatest sign of all, that he would be three days in the grave (Matthew 12:39-40) and resurrected (John 2:18). 


However, making a list of similarities and dissimilarities between Moses and some person claiming to be a prophet does not prove the person is THATprophet.”  The similarities must be those God intended.  For example, neither Jesus nor Muhammad were of the tribe of Levi, as was Moses, and neither of them had a brother named Aaron.   


3.      Deuteronomy 18 identifies three specific likenesses between Moses and the coming “prophet” which do not fit Muhammad. 


a.       Muhammad was not from among the “brethren” of the Levites (Deuteronomy 18:15) of the “tribes” of Israel. 


Moses and Jesus were both from the tribes of Israel.  The “brethren” of Moses and the Levites were the other Israelites (Exodus 2:11; Leviticus 10:6).  Jesus was of the tribe of Judah, brethren to the tribe of Levi. (Matthew 1:2-16; John 1:47) 


b.      Muhammad did not receive his message directly from God as did Moses. (Deuteronomy 18:16).  He received his messages from an angel. 


Surah 2:97 [#87] "... Gabriel ... brings down The (revelation) to thy heart…For those who believe…"


Jesus was greater than the angels (Heb 1:1-8).  Like Moses, he received his message directly from God (John 12:28; 5:37; 15:15; 17:8).


c.       Muhammad did not accurately predict things to come (Deuteronomy 18:22). Moses and Jesus did (Deut. 28; Luke 21:20-24).


Examination of the text

Deuteronomy 18:1. The priests the Levites, even all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, and his inheritance. 2 And they shall have no inheritance among their brethren: Jehovah is their inheritance, as he hath spoken unto them.  3 And this shall be the priests' due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. 4 The first-fruits of thy grain, of thy new wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him. 5 For Jehovah thy God hath chosen him out of all your tribes, to stand to minister in the name of Jehovah, him and his sons for ever.


Their Brethren” refers to the, “Brethren” of the Levites of the “tribes” of Israel (cf. Leviticus 10:6). 


The Levites were not to receive any inheritance of land as the other tribes.  They were to live in cities scattered throughout the land and be supported by the tithes and offerings of the other tribes.


Moses then told them:  (Deuteronomy 18:15) Jehovah your God will raise up unto you a prophet from the midst of you, of your brethren, like unto me; unto him you shall hearken; 16 according to all that you desire of Jehovah your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of Jehovah my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.


Nothing in the context indicates he is speaking of the Ishmaelites who descended from an Egyptian servant hundreds of years earlier.  The prophet was to be “…from the midst of you…”  (Israelites), --those who had pleaded not to hear again the voice of Jehovah God nor see the fire any more that they die not (Deuteronomy 18:16.  See Exodus 20:18-19).  Moses was addressing Israelites, not Ishmaelites.  The specification that the prophet was to come “from the midst of you” is utterly fatal to any attempt to identify the “prophet” with Ishmael.  This statement is in all Hebrew manuscripts.


Deut 18:17 And Jehovah said unto me, They have well said that which they have spoken. 18 I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, [brethren of the Levites] like unto you; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. 19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.


As identified in the first few versus of chapter 18, their “brethren” are clearly brethren of the Levites, to whom Moses was speaking. (cf. Numbers 8:26)  Jesus was of the tribe of Judah, brethren to the Levites. 


Jesus Spoke all that God the Father commanded him (John 8:26-28; 12:49-50; 14:10)


4.      The inspired New Testament writers confirm that Jesus is the “prophet” like Moses.


a.      Jesus’ works indicated he was the “prophet” spoken of by Moses.


The things that Jesus did indicated to the people that he was the “prophet” like Moses, though it appears they did not understand that the “prophet” was the same as the “Messiah.” (cf. John 1:21; 25)


John 6:14. When therefore the people saw the sign [miracle of bread to eat] which he did, they said, This is of a truth the prophet that comes into the world.


Like Moses gave them physical bread (Exodus 16:15), Jesus gave miraculous bread to eat, and also offered spiritual “bread” from heaven. (cf. Mark 6:52; John 6:30-35)


John 7:40. Some of the multitude therefore, when they heard these words, said, This is of a truth the prophet.


Like Moses gave literal water to drink (Ex. 17:6), Jesus offered them spiritual “water.”  They responded by identifying him as the prophet of whom Moses spoke (John 7:37-38; 1Corinthians 10:4).


Matthew 21:10. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?  11 And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.


Matthew 13:57   57 And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honor, save in his own country, and in his own house.


b.      John 5:46. Jesus said that Moses “wrote of me.”  Genesis 3:15; 12:3; Deuteronomy 18 seem to be the only passages where Moses wrote of Jesus.  However, Muslims deny that any of these refer to Jesus.


c.       Luke records both Stephen and the apostle Peter applying the prophecy to Jesus.


Acts 3:20 Peter said:. 20 and that he may send the Christ who hath been appointed for you, even Jesus:  21 whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets that have been from of old. Moses indeed said, A prophet shall the Lord God raise up unto you from among your brethren, like unto me. To him shall ye hearken in all things whatsoever he shall speak unto you. 23 And it shall be, that every soul that shall not hearken to that prophet, shall be utterly destroyed from among the people. 24 Yea and all the prophets from Samuel and them that followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days.


Acts 7:37 Stephen indicated the Jews’ rejection of Jesus was like their rejection of Moses.  In doing so, he cited the “prophet like Moses,” who if they would not hear, they would be cut off.


5.      Muhammad’s failure to provide prophetic evidence, and his conflicts with the teachings of both Moses and Jesus, suggest that rather than being like Moses, he falls into the classification of verses 20-22.


Deuteronomy 18:21. And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which Jehovah hath not spoken? 22 When a prophet speaks in the name of Jehovah, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which Jehovah hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.


Isaiah 8:20. To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.




Matthew 21:43  43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. (cf. Gen. 21:13, 18)


ANSWER:  This is the parable of the wicked husbandmen (the Jews) who killed the son (Jesus) of the good householder (Matt. 21:37-39).  Jesus is the stone that the builders rejected (Matt. 21:42-44; cf. Rom. 9:32-33).


Acts 4:10-11  10 Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole.  11 This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.  (cf. Eph. 2:20)


The nation of the Jews was destroyed in 70 A.D. and they were scattered into all nations until the times of the Gentiles were fulfilled (Luke 21:22-24).


The kingdom was taken from them and given to a spiritual nation--Christianity (Rom. 11:17; Col. 1:13; 1Pet. 2:9; John 18:36; Mark 9:1). 


Luke 17:20-21   20 And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.


The end of the Jewish nation and the beginning of the Kingdom of Christ was over 500 years before Islam. 


VI.              ERRORS IN THE KORAN


Muslims claim that every word of the Koran was from God, perfectly recorded, and nothing changed.  However there is considerable evidence to the contrary. 


After the death of Muhammad, the various versions and fragments were gathered into one book and all others ordered destroyed. 


“Abu Bakr as-Siddiq sent for me when the people of Yamama had been killed. Then Abu Bakr said (to me): ‘You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle (saw). So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it (in one book).’ By Allah! If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, ‘How will you do something which Allah's Apostle (saw) did not do?’ Abu Bakr replied ‘By Allah, it is a good project.’” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 6, p.477).


There were differences about the contents.


“Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sha'm and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to Uthman, 'O Chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Qur'an) as Jews and the Christians did before'. So Uthman sent a message to Hafsa, saying, 'Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you'. Hafsa sent It to Uthman. Uthman then ordered Zaid ibn Thabit, Abdullah bin az-Zubair, Sa'id bin al-As, and Abdur-Rahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, 'In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of the Quraish as the Qur'an was revealed in their tongue'. They did so, and when they had written many copies, Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 6, p.479).


According to Muslim records themselves, some things were lost.


“Many (of the passages) of the Qur'an that were sent down were known by those who died on the day of Yamama ... but they were not known (by those who) survived them, nor were they written down, nor had Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman (by that time) collected the Qur'an, nor were they found with even one (person) after them.” (Ibn Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Masahif, p.23).


This subject is too extensive for our study here but is fully examined at the following website.


Muslims also claim the Koran has no errors or contradictions, but again the facts indicate otherwise.


If Muhammad were a prophet like Moses and Jesus he should not be in conflict with their teachings.  The Koran has many problems and conflicts with the Old and New testaments.  Besides those already mentioned, here is another example: 


The Koran conflicts with Jesus concerning marriage in heaven.


The Koran teaches that in the next world Allah “shall wed them into fair ones with wide, lovely eyes [hoorine]  --(44:51-56; 52:17-20; cf. 56:12-24).


Surah 55:70. Therein (gardens) will be fair (wives) good and beautiful;

71. Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?

72. Houris[] (beautiful, fair females) restrained in pavilions;

73.  Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinns and men) deny?

74. Whom no man or jinn yatmithhunna (has opened their hymens with sexual intercourse) before them.


According to Ibn Kathir, Muhammad promised, at least 72 wives as the smallest reward.[18]


In total conflict with this, Jesus said that in the resurrection “they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels in heaven.” (Matthew 22:30; Mark 12:25; Luke 20:35)




This claim is purely tradition with no sound basis in either the Koran or the Bible and even among Muslim scholars has been questioned.


The Koran fails to even name the son Abraham prepared for sacrifice.


What does the “Book” say?


Genesis 22:2. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son, whom you love, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah. And offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.  3 And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son. And he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.  4 On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.  5 And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder; and we will worship, and come again to you.  6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son. And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. And they went both of them together.  7 And Isaac spoke unto Abraham his father, and said, My father. And he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold, the fire and the wood. But where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?  8 And Abraham said, God will provide himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son. So they went both of them together.  9 And they came to the place which God had told him of. And Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood.


James 2:21. Was not Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son upon the altar?


Hebrews 11:17. By faith Abraham, being tried, offered up Isaac: yea, he that had gladly received the promises was offering up his only begotten son;



Muslims claim that “Take now thy son, your only son…” (Genesis 22:2) must refer to Ishmael before Isaac was born. 


1.      The above passages clearly specified Isaac, and identified the time as long after Ishmael was disinherited. The inspired writers of the New Testament agree (Heb. 11:17-18; James 2:21; Gal 4:28).

2.      Only son” is speaking of the son of promise by Sarah.  He was the son who remained with Abraham to whom the inheritance was promised (Genesis 17:19-21; Romans 9:9; Galatians 4:28).  Ishmael had been disinherited and cast out (Genesis 21:10-12; Galatians 4:22-30).  

3.      Only son” does not indicate Abraham had no child by Hagar.  If it had, and someone changed the name and the order of events, they surely would have changed that also. 

4.      The birthright to the land clearly belonged to Isaac as the rightful heir.(Genesis 13:14-18, 15:18-21, 28:13-14)




Neither Jesus nor any of his apostles held slaves nor did they conquer and enslave people.  In conformance with Roman law, one Christian slave (Onisimus) was voluntarily returned to his Christian master who Paul told to treat as a "brother" (Phm 1:16) and Christian masters and slaves were told how to live in these roles (Col. 3:22--4:1).  


Islam has promoted slavery from its beginning.  After the Battle of The Trench Muhammad had 600 Jews of Banu Quraiza (or Qurayza) slaughtered and enslaved their women and children.[19] 


The Koran teaches that it is acceptable to make slaves of captives. 

Surah 70:29. [#79] And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts)[] . 30.  Except with their wives and the (women slaves and captives) whom their right hands possess, for (then) they are not to be blamed,

Surah 2.221 [#87]  Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters), until they believe: A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman, even though she allures you. Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: A man slave who believes is better than an unbeliever, even though he allures you. Unbelievers do (but) beckon you to the Fire. But Allah beckons by His Grace to the Garden (of Bliss) and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind: That they may celebrate His praise.


Surah 33:50. [#90] O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (captives or slaves) whom your right hand possesses - whom Allâh has given to you, and the daughters of your 'Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your 'Ammah (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khâl (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khâlah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (captives or slaves) whom their right hands possess, - in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allâh is Ever Oft­Forgiving, Most Merciful.


Surah 4:3. [#92] And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan­girls, then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (the captives and the slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice.


Surah 4:92 [#92] Never should a believer kill a believer, except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased's family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah. for Allah hath All knowledge and All wisdom.


In Contrast, Christians were discouraged from taking people captive.


Revelation 13:10   10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.




The Koran provides many good things to protect women.  However, there are some troubling inequalities.


A.  Physical abuse

Surah 4:34 [#92] Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allâh has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allâh and to their husbands), and guard in the husband's absence what Allâh orders them to guard (e.g. their chastity, their husband's property, etc.). As to those women on whose part you see ill­conduct, admonish them (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful), but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). Surely, Allâh is Ever Most High, Most Great.


This has been used to justify terrible abuse of women who fail to comply – burning, mutilation and even death.


B.  Women are greatly restricted in public appearance.

Surah 33:33. [#90] And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves...

59. O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e.screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allâh is Ever Oft­Forgiving, Most Merciful[].  [see also Surah 24:31.  –ARJ]


C.     Woman’s testimony is not recognized as equal to a man’s

Surah 2:282 [#87] and call to witness two witnesses of your people; but if there be not two men, let there be a man, and two women of those whom ye shall judge fit for witnesses: if the one of them should mistake, the other may cause her to recollect.


D.    Males inherit twice as much as females

Surah 4:11, 176. [#92] Allâh commands you as regards your children's (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females;...


E.     Polygamy (Koran 4:3)


Polygamy, practiced by Mohammad and his successors from the beginning,  degrades women, especially captives and slaves.  It divides the devotion of her husband (Surah 4:29; Genesis 29:30-31).  It is discriminatory because it is only available to men.  In the beginning God did not intend it (Genesis 2:24) and even restricted it (Deut. 17:17), though tolerated (Abraham, Jacob, David, Solomon) for the hardness of their hearts (Matthew 19:8).  It often is the occasion of serious problems (Genesis 16:4-6; 21:9-12; 29 & 30; 1Samuel 1:2-6; 1Kings 11:4).  Under Christianity it was strictly excluded.


Matthew 19:4-9.  Jesus said that from the beginning God intended a man and woman to marry and the “two should be one. 


Christian leaders were to be “the husband of one wife” (1Timothy 3:2; 3:12; Titus 1:6). Marriage to a second partner while the first was still living, even after divorce, “except for the cause of fornication,” was “adultery” (Matthew 5:32; 19:4-9; Romans 7:2-3)


In contrast, after the death of his first wife, Muhammad had at least nine wives (some say 14)[20] plus concubines.  One of these was through divorce from her husband so that Muhammad could have her.[21] (see Surah 33:36-37)  Some were captives or slaves.[22]  When he was fifty-three, he married Ayesha, daughter of Abu Baker, when she was only eight or nine years old.[23]  Upon this is justified child brides as early as 12 years to men as old as 70.


Hadith Volume 1, Book 8, Number 367: Narrated 'Abdul 'Aziz:

…We conquered Khaibar, took the captives, and the booty was collected. Dihya came and said, 'O Allah's Prophet! Give me a slave girl from the captives.' The Prophet said, 'Go and take any slave girl.' He took Safiya bint Huyai. A man came to the Prophet and said, 'O Allah's Apostles! You gave Safiya bint Huyai to Dihya and she is the chief mistress of the tribes of Quraiza and An-Nadir and she befits none but you.' So the Prophet said, 'Bring him along with her.' So Dihya came with her and when the Prophet saw her, he said to Dihya, 'Take any slave girl other than her from the captives.' Anas added: The Prophet then manumitted her and married her."


Surah 33:50. [#90] O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (captives or slaves) whom your right hand possesses - whom Allâh has given to you, and the daughters of your 'Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your 'Ammah (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khâl (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khâlah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (captives or slaves) whom their right hands possess, - in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allâh is Ever Oft­Forgiving, Most Merciful.


Muslim men are permitted up to four wives at a time.

Surah 4:3. [#89]  And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan­girls, then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (the captives and the slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice.


Temporary marriages and concubinage, especially among Sheites, has by many been viewed as supported by the Koran, further degrading women. 


F.      The Koran teaches that a man may divorce his wife finally by saying “I divorce you” three times.

In contrast, it is very difficult for Muslim women to divorce their husband without his consent.  Many have chosen suicide as a way out.


Judaism and Christianity, required a “writing of divorcement” (Deuteronomy 24:1; Matthew 19:7)


G.    If a Muslim divorces his wife three times he cannot remarry her until she marries another man and is again divorced. 


Surah 2: 230. [#87] And if he has divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she has married another husband. Then, if the other husband divorces her, it is no sin on both of them that they reunite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allâh. These are the limits of Allâh, which He makes plain for the people who have knowledge..


This is in direct conflict with the teaching of Moses who says that if a woman is divorced and marries another she cannot return to her first husband. (Deut. 24:1-4)


X.                 ISLAM’S HARSH JUSTICE



Koran: Surah 5:38. [#112] Cut off (from the wrist joint) the (right) hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allâh. And Allâh is All­Powerful, All­Wise.


In contrast, the New Testament: Ephesians 4:28  28 Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.




Koran: Surah 24:2. [#102] The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not pity withhold you in their case, in a punishment prescribed by Allâh, if you believe in Allâh and the Last Day. And let a party of the believers witness their punishment. (This punishment is for unmarried persons guilty of the above crime but if married persons commit it, the punishment is to stone them to death, according to Allâh's Law)[].


In contrast, Jesus: John 8:3-11   3 And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him [Jesus] a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst,  4 They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act.  5 Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned: but what do you say?  6 This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not.  7 So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.  8 And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground.  9 And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.  10 When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?  11 She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more.


It is significant that most Muslim countries have secular laws. Because of the many restrictions and harshness under Shari'ah law, Muslims themselves often resist its establishment even in the face of death in vicious attacks by Islamic fundamentalists.




The Christian “book”does indicate the danger of Hell fire in the next life for those who insist on wicked behavior.  However it predominantly features appeals through love. The love of God permeates the New Testament. 


1John 4:8, 16 God is love

John 3:16  God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son... 

1John 4:19 We love Him because he first loved us.


In contrast, the Koran’s overwhelming motivation is terror, both in this life and the next for failure to “submit.”  Muhammad is primarily pictured as a “Warner,” not a Saviour. 


The New Testament is larger than the Koran yet the emphasis on hell and warnings are far less.  In contrast, the Koran focuses far more on the anger of God and far less on His love. 




We are told that, “Islam is a religion of peace.”  That is difficult to believe for non-Muslims who have any knowledge of history, have any awareness of current events around the world, have lived under Muslim Law, or have read the Koran. 


We are told that “Islam means peace.”  Actually the word means that one is “submitted” [to God]—pacified but not necessarily peaceful towards others. 


Surah 3:19 [#89] The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account


The word for “peace” in Arabic is “Salâm,” not “Islam.” 


Surah 51:25 [67]. When they came in to him, and said, "Salâm, (peace be upon you)!" He answered; "Salâm, (peace be upon you)," and said: "You are a people unknown to me,"


From the time of Muhammad Muslim countries around the world have been known for violence, both within Islam and toward others.  They rarely have governments chosen peacefully by the people.  Violence has been the prevailing means of bringing change.  A sort of tribal warlord mentality prevails in which only the most ruthless are able to maintain control.  


If Islam were nonviolent and had a system of life truly from God, one would think that their countries would be the safest and most ideal examples of human rights in the world. 


I do not wish to paint all Muslims as violent.  At times in history, and some places today, there has been a tradition of tolerance.  However, the large number of Muslims around the world, involved in terrorist acts against innocent people in the name of Allah, make it very difficult to believe that Islam is a “religion of peace.” When everyone must be extremely cautious to not offend Muslims lest they suddenly flair into violence, rioting and threats of murder, they do not sound very "peaceful." This failure is directly traceable back to Muhammad and the Koran which calls for violence and offers great reward for martyrdom in the name of Allah.  Those seeds especially germinate in the minds of radicals who in turn pressure moderate Muslims to join in extremist demands.


Fundamentalists divide the world into two camps, Dar Al-Harb' (Camp of war) where Jews and Christians live, and Dar AI-Sallam (Camp of peace) where Muslims live. They believe that Jihad (Holy war) against those who live in the camp of war should continue until they are subdued.  They consider it "defensive" because Allah owns everything. Because of this, Radical Islamists dream of a global Islamic empire.


Hamas’s charter,

Article 5...Its ultimate goal is Islam, the Prophet its model, the Qur’an its Constitution. Its special dimension extends wherever on earth there are Muslims, who adopt Islam as their way of life; thus, it penetrates to the deepest reaches of the land and to the highest spheres of Heavens.


Article 8: The Slogan of the Hamas

Allah is its goal, the Prophet its model, the Qur’an its Constitution, Jihad its path and death for the case of Allah its most sublime belief.


Surah 8:73. [#88] [Noble Quran]  And those who disbelieve are allies to one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so (i.e. become allies, as one united block with one Khalifah - chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world to make victorious Allâh's Religion of Islâmic Monotheism), there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism, etc.) and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism).[]


Muslims are generally peaceful in countries where they are in a minority, where freedom is a strong tradition or where being so is to their advantage.  However, the nature of the religion is such that as they gain dominance, the pattern is to press for Islamic laws, which then places restrictions on Christians designed to humiliate and bring them under Muslim domination -- “submission.[24] “Peace” is conditioned on whether Muslim interests prevail.  (see Surah 47:35) 


In defense, Muslims point to historic Christian violence such as the Crusades –and especially Christian support of Jews establishing a homeland in Palestine.  The excesses of the Crusades are deplored by most Christians and a violation of early Christian teaching.  However, Muslims discount the fact that the Crusades were in response to Arab plundering of Christian pilgrims and were an attempt to take back land originally taken from Christians.


Surah 33: 26. [#90] And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allâh brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives. 27. And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches, and a land which you had not trodden (before). And Allâh is Able to do all things.


This Surah points up a key issue with the Jews reestablishing a homeland in Palestine. Muslims hold that once they win control of land, it is theirs by authority of Allah in perpetuity--forever.  Allah gives them the land of others and no one has the right to take it back.


The Jews long ago were driven from their land, which even the Koran says was assigned to the people led by the prophet, Moses. 


Surah 5:20-21. [#112]...Műsa (Moses)... said "O my people! Enter the holy land (Palestine) which Allâh has assigned to you, and turn not back (in flight) for then you will be returned as losers."


Over the centuries Muslims, Christians and Jews have all done injustice and suffered injustices.  That is the nature of the rise and fall of nations.  Violence by Christians, Jews, or Muslims is no less violence.  Only God can decide who should prevail.  (Jer. 27:5-6; Dan. 4:25, 32; 5:21)


Acts 17:26      And [God] hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;


Muslim moderates contend that much of the current terrorist activities are not representative of true Islam, citing the following passage from the Koran concerning Cain killing Abel:


Surah 5:32. [#112] Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. ...


Unfortunately, this still validates vengeance.  Another passage does the same.


Surah 2:178 [#87] O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. And for him who is forgiven somewhat by his (injured) brother, prosecution according to usage and payment unto him in kindness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. He who transgresses after this will have a painful doom. [Pickthal, (Shakir similarly) --ARJ ]

 Once the door is opened to individual vengeance, judgment of guilt and retaliation shifts from the hands of duly authorized impartial authorities.  That breaks down moderating legal processes and fuels justification of violence.


In contrast, the New Testament admonishes not to take personal vengeance.


Romans 12:14. Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not.

17 Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. 18 If it be possible, as much as lies in you, live peaceably with all men. 19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.


Romans 13:1-4 teaches that vengeance is the province of the governing authorities.


Muslims reply that, just as there are violent groups among Christians that do not represent Christianity, so also some professing Islam are violent.  The comparison is far from representative.  In “Christian” societies such groups are generally small, and firmly put down instead of justified and harbored. If Muslims did more to suppress such groups among themselves, their claims of being peaceful would be more credible.


The problem here is much more than just a few small aberrant extremist sects.  Islam began with violence of Muhammad and his successors.  The Koran repeatedly urges violence with guarantees of rewards for martyrdom.  The emphasis on “submission” tends to be translated into submission to tyrannical warlords. 


Muslims respond that the Bible is also full of violence.  That is true of the Old Testament, where God forcibly established and maintained the nation of Israel and where they often departed from God’s will.  After centuries of wickedness and idolatry, (Geneses 15:16) God commanded that the native inhabitants were to be driven out or destroyed to keep them from corrupting God’s people (Deut 7:1-4; 20:18).  However, if a city peacefully surrendered they were not to be treated violently (Deut 20:10, 11). 


Violence authorized by God in the Old Testament was limited to certain crimes (Leveticus 24:19-21) and establishing and maintaining an Israelite homeland, rather than a worldwide empire (Numbers 33:52-55).  As we saw above, even the Koran affirms that God assigned them to take the land (Surah 5:20-21)

Muslims point to the injustice of the Jews taking their lands and houses.  This is understandable.  However, the Koran also says that in their day Moslems took lands and houses from the people of the book (Surah 33: 26).

This raises another interesting point.  The Koran teaches that Allah assigns each nation a limited period.  If this is correct, Israel came to power by God’s authority.

Surah 10:49. [#51] Say (O Muhammad SAW): "I have no power over any harm or profit to myself except what Allâh may will. For every Ummah (a community or a nation), there is a term appointed; when their term is reached, neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment)." (Tafsir Al-Qurtubî).


See also Numbers 34 where God stated the extent of Israelite rule.


This poses the question as to whether the present struggle by Muslims against the existence of a Jewish nation in Palestine is an exercise in futility.  If there is a set limit for the rise and fall of every nation, what is the significance of Israel’s rise in our time?  If only Allah can decree this, are not Muslims who oppose Israel resisting His will?


May we not reasonably consider that, just as God took Palestine from the Jews for their failures, He might also take the lands of unfruitful Muslims and give them back to the Jews –as Jesus indicated in Luke 21:24?


Luke 21:24  24 And they [the Jews] shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.  [compare Romans 11:18-21]


This issue is especially significant in light of the Jews having regained a homeland and control of Jerusalem after 2,000 years in spite of the combined might of the Muslim nations.  Could they have done this unless Allah willed it? 


Ezekiel 36:24   24 For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land. ...

28 And ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; and ye shall be my people, and I will be your God.


Ezekiel 28:25-26   25 Thus saith the Lord GOD; When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the people among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the heathen, then shall they dwell in their land that I have given to my servant Jacob26 And they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses, and plant vineyards; yea, they shall dwell with confidence, when I have executed judgments upon all those that despise them round about them; and they shall know that I am the LORD their God.


It is not enough to shrug this off by claiming the Bible is corrupted.  The simple fact is that they are there, just as these scriptures predicted long before Muhammad.




In stark contrast to the violence of Muhammad and his successors, Christianity began with no tradition of violence.  Christians fought no battles nor made any conquests for hundreds of years after Christ when it was made the State religion of Rome.


Isaiah 9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.


Christianity began peaceably with Jesus who, rather than calling his followers to arms, called them to peace--even when abused by their enemies.  


Matthew 5:9  9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called sons of God.


Matthew 5:38. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: 39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also….43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. 44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; [see also Luke 6:27-28]


In contrast, Sura 2:194. The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisâs). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allâh, and know that Allâh is with Al-Muttaqűn (the pious - see V.2:2) .


Luke 9:52-55. When the Samaritans rejected Jesus, James and John urged that fire be called down from heaven upon them.

55. But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. 56 For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them.


John 18:36. When Pilate asked if he was King of the Jews, “Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.”


      Jesus did not aspire to establish an earthly kingdom.  His kingdom was spiritual, within the hearts of men, spread throughout the earth.


Luke 17:20. And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God comes not with observation: 21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.


Jesus refused to become a temporal ruler.


John 6:15. When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.


Jesus told His disciples not to use the sword.


Matthew 26:51. In the garden, when Judas betrayed him and the Priests came with soldiers to capture him, it says, And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. 53 Do you think that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?


Luke 22:49. When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? 50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. 51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far.  And he touched his ear, and healed him.


The disciples of Jesus did not lead armies into conquest with physical weapons.  Instead of killing their enemies, they rejected violence and peacefully spread their teachings.


2Corinthians 10:3-5. For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: 4 (For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;)  5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts  itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;


1Peter 2:21. For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps: 22 Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: 23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judges righteously


Revelation 13:10. He that leads into captivity shall go into captivity: he that kills with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.


Some may object that in Luke 22:36 Jesus told his disciples to buy a sword.  But, for what purpose?  Certainly not to conquer his enemies or establish an empire. This may have reference to defense against wild animals or robbers in their travels.  Contextually it may be related to fulfilling the prophecy that he was to be “reckoned among the transgressors” (Luke 22:37). 


Some may cite Matthew 10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword


The parallel passage in Luke 12:51-53 clarifies what he had in mind.  It says he came to set “division.”  The “sword” authorized for Christians to use is the “sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God” (Eph. 6:17; 2Cor. 10:3-5).


In light of Jesus’ clear rejection of violence, the only ones who would be using literal swords would be those against Christians.  Jesus told Christians to “flee,” not fight.


Matthew 10:21-23   21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death.  22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.  23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee...


 He was certainly not commanding Christians to kill parents and relatives.  For centuries after the New Testament was written Christians refused to participate in the military though their enemies used swords against them. 




Matthew 5:43-44   43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.  44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;


Matthew 22:35-40   35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying,  36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law?  37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.  38 This is the first and great commandment.  39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.


John 13:34-35   34 A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.  35 By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.


John 15:12-13   12 This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.


Romans 5:8   8 But God commends his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.


1 John 4:18   18 There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear: because fear hath torment. He that fears is not made perfect in love.


Muslims respond that the Koran also teaches peaceful behavior.  That is true, though it seems conditioned upon their interests prevailing.  The Koran clearly calls for violence, and from the beginning Muhammad and his successors were deeply involved in violence.




Many Muslims look to these in their desire to live their faith peaceably in spite of the turbulence of our changing world. 


Surah 2:256. [#87] There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Tâghűt[] and believes in Allâh, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.


This was written during the early years at Medina. Jehadists invoke the doctrine of abrogation by later verses to override such early statements.  With the growth of power we see harsher Surahs. 


Also, the problem here is how one interprets “no compulsion.” One may not be compelled to believe but may still be repressed from exercising one’s faith and forced to pay the discriminatory Jizyah (protection tax).  In any case we still have the problem of violence in the command to kill those who leave Islam.


Surah 10: 99. [#51]  And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them. So, will you (O Muhammad SAW) then compel mankind, until they become believers. 100. It is not for any person to believe, except by the Leave of Allâh, and He will put the wrath on those who are heedless.

Surah 15:2. [#54]  Perhaps (often) will those who disbelieve wish that they were Muslims [those who have submitted themselves to Allâh's Will in Islâm Islâmic Monotheism, this will be on the Day of Resurrection when they will see the disbelievers going to Hell and the Muslims going to Paradise].[] 3. Leave them to eat and enjoy, and let them be preoccupied with (false) hope. They will come to know!

Surah 18:29. [#69] And say: "The truth is from your Lord." Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have prepared for the Zâliműn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), a Fire whose walls will be surrounding them (disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh). And if they ask for help (relief, water, etc.) they will be granted water like boiling oil, that will scald their faces. Terrible the drink, and an evil Murtafaqâ (dwelling, resting place, etc.)!

Surah 27:92. [#48] And to recite the Qur'ân, so whosoever receives guidance, receives it for the good of his ownself, and whosoever goes astray, say (to him): "I am only one of the warners."

Surah 60:8.[#91] Allâh does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allâh loves those who deal with equity. 9. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allâh forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zâliműn (wrong-doers those who disobey Allâh).

Surah 4:90.[#92] Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allâh willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allâh has opened no way for you against them.


Moderate Muslims maintain that the harsh passages in the Koran had to do with a time when Islam was under pressure, struggling to survive and was not yet completed. 


However, most of the peaceful passages were early while still at Mecca when Muhammad dared not resort to violence.  Some are early at Medina when his power was still limited to defensive struggle. In later passages the earlier methods are superseded (cf. Surah 16:101) and Muhammad increasingly resorted to violence.


As we shall see, while there are some passages that further peace, others sharply restrict freedom and foster violence. This radical view prevails today throughout much of the Muslim world.  Even in this country, Muslims who I personally know, dare not let it be known that they have converted to Christianity, upon pain of death.




Genesis 16:8-12   8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.  9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.  10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.  11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.  12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.




The seeds of violence bear violent fruit


Islam’s tradition of violence springs from the very fountain of its beginning--the prophet and his immediate successors.  They were tribal warriors. Those who drink from that source draw naturally from its violence.


Muhammad is regarded as the highest ideal of Muslims.  Consider his example.



·        The Battle of Badr[25] (624 A.D.). Muhammad with 300 defeated 1,000 Koroishites

·        The Battle of Uhud[26] (625 A.D.). Muhammad’s forces were defeated and he was wounded.

·        The Battle of the Trench[27] (627 A.D.).  Muhammad dug a deep trench which frustrated attempts by the Koroishites, who fought on horseback.

·        The slaughter of the Jews of Banu Quraiza (or Qurayza).[28]  During the struggle of the Trench, some of the Jews had sought to negotiate with the Meccans.  When Muhammad learned of this he slaughtered 600 of them and enslaved their women and children. 

·        Conquest of Mecca (630 A.D.).




·        Abu Bakr’s bloody forcible repression of those who left Islam after the death of the Prophet during what is known as “The years of apostasy.” (632-633) 

·        Conquests under the “Four Righteous Caliphs” Abu Bakr (632-634),
Umar (634-644), Uthman (644-656) and Ali (656-661):


“By 640, Islamic military campaigns had brought all of Mesopotamia and most of Syria and Palestine under the control of Islam. Egypt was conquered by 642 and the Persian Empire by 643. These were some of the richest regions in the world guarded by powerful militaries—and they fell into Islamic hands in a heartbeat.  

“They took control of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Iran, all Mesopotamia... capturing Damascus in 635, Jerusalem in 638, Cairo in 641, Alexandria in 642...Iraq and Persia 640-644, North Africa 647, Cypress 649” ...[29]

·        The internal conflicts and assassinations as they fought among themselves for the Caliphate and to forced loyalty to remain subjects.

·        Saracen conquests across North Africa into Spain in the West and to India in the East, establishing a vast empire in scarcely more than a hundred years after the death of the Prophet.

·        The horrid Genocidal slaughter of over a million Armenian Christians in Turkey in 1915.

·        The current ruthless indiscriminate slaughter of innocent men, women and children by suicide bombers, planes crashed into buildings, bombings of buildings, poison gas and cutting throats, in the name of Allah around the world—and mobs of Muslims cheering for it.


Muslim on Muslim Violence: What Drives It? by Salim Mansur*





*Salim Mansur is a professor of political science at the University of Western Ontario and a syndicated columnist in Canada and the United Kingdom. A Muslim native to Calcutta, India, and a noted Islamic scholar, Prof. Mansur has written extensively on Islamic extremism and the challenges facing contemporary Islam.  



“Since Samuel Huntington’s widely read Foreign Affairss essay, published in the summer 1993 issue of the journal, the idea of “the clash of civilizations” has come to be the most handy explanation of the troubled relationship between the Muslim world and the West. Huntington’s phrase, Islam has bloody borders,” was provocative and yet not inaccurate. Islamic or, more appropriately, Muslim militancy has fuelled a mindless and bigoted conflict, civilizational in nature, that sort of peaked with the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001.”


“But what Huntington’s essay, and later his book on the same theme, and other writings of similar kind does not mention, and the subject remains largely unexplored, is the bloodier conflict within the Muslim world. The phenomenon of Muslim violence against Muslims demands attention, for it is primarily this inner conflict which periodically spills over beyond the borders of the Muslim world. More Muslims have been killed by Muslims, more Muslims continue to be victimized by Muslims, and more Muslims are in danger of dying at the hands of Muslims than non-Muslims. This is a subject that demands a wider examination and attention than has been given by Muslims and non-Muslims alike.”




“During the first fifty years of the post-Prophetic period in Muslim history, bracketed by the events in the portico of Banu Sa`idah even as the Prophet awaited burial (632) and the brutal killing of Husain, son of Ali and the grandson of the Prophet from his daughter Fatimah at Karbala in Iraq (680), the template of Muslim politics that remains dominant in practice was fashioned.” 


The abuse of religion in such a manner is not confined to Muslims only; Christians have their own history of violence. But the intensity and persistence of Muslim violence against Muslims – the intra-Christian violence is now an exception when it occurs and not the norm – requires an explanation.”




“In this period the extraordinary departure took place from what was forbidden and scrupulously 6 followed during the lifetime of the Prophet, the ban on Muslim violence against Muslims. There followed the wars or campaigns against apostasy; the first civil war after the murder of Uthman, the third khalif; the disputed leadership of Ali, the fourth khalif, and his murder; the political triumph of the clan of the Abdu Shams, to which Abu Sufyan belonged, over the clan of Hashim, to which the Prophet belonged; the transformation of a consensus-based leadership of the Muslim community into a Roman- Byzantium type dynastic rule, and its most significant first victims were Husain and his family, the direct descendants of the Prophet.


All of this took place even as the message of the Prophet, Islam, was glorified and the physical boundaries of Islam were rapidly extended beyond the confines of Arabia into Palestine and Syria, into Africa, and into Persia.”




Muhammad endorsed torture.




Narrated Anas:

Some people from the tribe of 'Ukl came to the Prophet and embraced Islam. The climate of Medina did not suit them, so the Prophet ordered them to go to the (herd of milch) camels of charity and to drink, their milk and urine (as a medicine). They did so, and after they had recovered from their ailment (became healthy) they turned renegades (reverted from Islam) and killed the shepherd of the camels and took the camels away. The Prophet sent (some people) in their pursuit and so they were (caught and) brought, and the Prophets ordered that their hands and legs should be cut off and that their eyes should be branded with heated pieces of iron, and that their cut hands and legs should not be cauterized, till they die.

--Volume 8, Book 82, Number 794:



To gain booty (Surah 59:6-9), Muhammad’s troops attacked the Jewish town of Khaibar.  Kinana al-Rabi, custodian of the treasure of the Banu Nadir tribe (Surah 59:2) was brought to Muhammad who ordered him to reveal the location of the treasure.  When he denied having any, Muhammad ordered:


"Torture him until you extract what he has."  So he kindled a fire with flint and steel on his chest until he was nearly dead.  Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. Maslama and he struck off his head, in revenge for his brother Mahmud.

 -- "The Life of Muhammad", by A. Guillaume page 515, a translation of  “The Life of the Prophet of God” by the Muslim scholar, Ibn Ishaq written two centuries after Muhammad’s death, 


These represent only a few of the bloody events in which Muhammad and his successors were involved.




Note: The quotations below are from the Noble Quran[30] which may be found at:

-Text in brackets and parentheses are commentary within the translation.

-Bolding, italicizing and underlining are by A.R.J..

-The bracketed number [#__] after each Surah is the accepted order in which they were given.  Highlighted numbers indicate location was after Muhammad’s flight to Medina.


Surah 4:89 [#92] They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliyâ' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allâh (to Muhammad SAW). But if they turn back (from Islâm),[31] take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliyâ' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.


Surah 8:38. [#88] Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief) their past will be forgiven. But if they return (thereto), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning). 39. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allâh) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allâh Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allâh), then certainly, Allâh is All-Seer of what they do.[]


After the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr enforced this in his bloody suppression of those who sought to leave during the “Years of Apostacy.” (632-633 AD)


The teaching in these passages is significant because it became a basis for restricting individual freedom to choose what to believe and freedom to communicate alternative beliefs. Freedom to follow one’s conscience is one of the fundamental rights from which all others derive. 


The call to kill those who leave Islam becomes justification for suppression, not only of Muslims, but other religions to communicate their beliefs to Muslims.  To prevent Muslims from accepting Christianity they are compelled to impose fear of death and restrict free and open exercise of their faith. 


Unlike this, Jesus pictured an entirely different way of handling apostasy.  In Luke 15:11-20, when the father’s son went out and wasted his living, he left him to learn from the consequences of his own folly and return voluntarily to be received with joy.


In the parable of the wheat and tares, Jesus warned against attempting to root the “tares” out of the world lest the wheat also be destroyed (Mat 13:28-30).


Instead of violence, Jesus told his disciples to protect the church by removing offenders from fellowship (Mat 18:15-17, see also 1Cor. 5:1-5; 2Cor 2:4-8).


The need to force people to become or remain Muslim betrays weakness.  If Islam were by authority of God and His truth, there would be no need to go to such ends to force people to remain Muslim.  People resort to violence when they feel they cannot prevail by reason.




The strength of Christianity is in the power of the Gospel message, not in power of the sword and repression.  The Christian “Book” says:


Romans 1:6. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.


Rev 12:11. And they overcame him [the devil] because of the blood of the Lamb, and because of the word of their testimony; and they loved not their life even unto death.


2Corinthians 10:3. For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: 4 (For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;) 5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;


Hebrews 4:12. For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.


John 8:32  32 And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.


Darkness must be protected from light.  Light dispels darkness which must flee from light.  (John 3:20-21).


John 3:20. For every one that does evil hates the light, neither comes to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.


Historically, freedom of religious choice has been one of the most cherished rights.  Suppression of this choice breeds violence and repression of all human rights.


Weakness requires maintaining a system of unequal justice.  Thus, while suppressing the beliefs of others Muslims claim the right to proselyte others to their faith.




Muhammad clearly taught that he was to advance Islam through violence.


"I have been ordered by God to fight with people till they bear testimony to the fact that there is no God but Allah and that Mohammed is his messenger, and that they establish prayer and pay Zakat (money). If they do it, their blood and their property are safe from me" (see Bukhari Vol. I, p. 13).


While Muhammad was at Mecca where he had no power he did not advocate violence.  However, when he fled to Medina where he came into power, he turned to violence as a policy to further his goals.  Surah 2 is generally considered to be the first at Medina, though some place it later.


Surah 2:190. [#87] And fight in the Way of Allâh those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allâh likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihâd, but it was supplemented by another (9:36)]

Surah 9:36. [#113] Verily, the number of months with Allâh is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allâh on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islâmic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikűn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) collectively, as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allâh is with those who are Al-Muttaqűn (the pious - see V.2:2).


These Surahs are sometimes cited to show that Muslims are commanded to only fight defensively.  However, they do not actually confine all violence to strictly defensive action.  Surah 2:190 has reference to the struggle when Muslims with thousands of troops came to take Mecca.  The statement, “those who fight you”-- refers to those defending the city.  It was still an offensive attack, though most of the city surrendered and the rest fled.


It is sometimes objected that Jihad does not mean killing.  It may be simply used of one’s personal “struggle.”  That is true but Koran repeatedly uses it of physical violence and it is commonly used that way by many Muslims.


Dr. Muhammad Sa’id Ramadan al-Buti In his book, "Jurisprudence in Muhammad’s Biography", (page 134, 7th edition):

"The Holy War, as it is known in Islamic Jurisprudence, is basically an offensive war. This is the duty of Muslims in every age when the needed military power becomes available to them. This is the phase in which the meaning of Holy War has taken its final form. Thus the apostle of God said: ‘I was commanded to fight the people until they believe in God and his message ..."’


Surah 2:191. [#87] And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers

2:192. But if they cease, then Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

2:193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allâh) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allâh (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zâliműn (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)


As we see above this had reference to the struggle with their relatives in Mecca (2:191).  Compassion was extended upon submission but violence was certainly decreed towards resistence. 


Later Surah’s, Islamic tradition, and conquests from India to Spain show that in practice Muslims did not confine their conflicts to defense. 


Surah 2:216 [#87] Jihâd (holy fighting in Allâh's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allâh knows but you do not know.


Surah 8:12 [#88] (Remember) when your Lord inspired the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes."

8:13 This is because they defied and disobeyed Allâh and His Messenger. And whoever defies and disobeys Allâh and His Messenger, then verily, Allâh is Severe in punishment.

8:14 This is the torment, so taste it, and surely for the disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.

8:15 O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battle-field, never turn your backs to them.

8:16 And whoever turns his back to them on such a day - unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), - he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allâh. And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!


Surah 8:59 [#88] And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves (from Allâh's Punishment).

8:60 And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allâh and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allâh does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allâh shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.

8:61 But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allâh. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.


Muslims cite Surahs such as this as evidence that Islam is peaceful.  However, in the face of the threat of massive violence, conversion or submission to repressive laws and tribute as the alternative of death, hardly meets any reasonable definition of “peaceful.”


Surah 8:65 [#88] O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast persons amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there be a hundred steadfast persons they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are people who do not understand.


Surah 8:66. [#88] Now Allâh has lightened your (task), for He knows that there is weakness in you. So if there are of you a hundred steadfast persons, they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a thousand of you, they shall overcome two thousand with the Leave of Allâh. And Allâh is with As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.).


Surah 8:67 [#88] It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allâh desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.


Surah 8:69 [#88] So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and be afraid of Allâh. Certainly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.


The following Surah relates to the defeat at Uhud.

Surah 3:152. [#89] And Allâh did indeed fulfil His Promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His Permission; until (the moment) you lost your courage and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you (of the booty) which you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them (your enemy), that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allâh is Most Gracious to the believers.

The next Surah promises great reward to those who die in battle.  This is one of the driving forces for those who seek martyrdom—even as a suicide bomber.


Surah 3:169. [#89] Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allâh as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.

3:170. They rejoice in what Allâh has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.

3:171. They rejoice in a Grace and a Bounty from Allâh, and that Allâh will not waste the reward of the believers.

3:172. Those who answered (the Call of) Allâh and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allâh, there is a great reward.


Surah 33:60. [#90] If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease (evil desire for adultery, etc.), and those who spread false news among the people in Al­Madinah, cease not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbours but a little while. 61. Accursed, wherever found, they shall be seized and killed with a (terrible) slaughter


Surah 4:74 [#92] Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the Cause of Allâh, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allâh, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.


Surah 4:91 [#92] Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them.


Surah 4:95. [#92] Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame, etc.), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allâh with their wealth and their lives. Allâh has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allâh has promised good (Paradise), but Allâh has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward;


Surah 4:101 [#92] And when you (Muslims) travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten your Salât (prayer) if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you, verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.

4:102. When you (O Messenger Muhammad SAW) are among them, and lead them in As-Salât (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salât (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which has not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allâh has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.


Surah 4:104 [#92] And don't be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allâh (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not, and Allâh is Ever All­Knowing, All­Wise.


Surah 57:10. [#94] And what is the matter with you that you spend not in the Cause of Allâh? And to Allâh belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth. Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah) (with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all, Allâh has promised the best (reward). And Allâh is All-Aware of what you do.


Surah 47:4. [#95] So, when you meet (in fight Jihâd in Allâh's Cause), those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islâm), until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allâh to continue in carrying out Jihâd against the disbelievers till they embrace Islâm (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the Hell-fire) or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allâh's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight), in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allâh, He will never let their deeds be lost


Surah 59:13. [#101] Verily, you (believers in the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism) are more awful as a fear in their (Jews of Banî An-Nadîr) breasts than Allâh...


Surah 61:4. [#109] Verily, Allâh loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure


Surah 48:16. [#111] Say (O Muhammad SAW) to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allâh will give you a fair reward, but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment."


Surah 5:33 [#112] The recompense of those who wage war against Allâh and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.


Surah 5:82. [#112] Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikűn (see V.2:105), and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: "We are Christians." That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.


This appears to be a conciliatory gesture towards Christians.  However, the context indicates that this depends upon whether they submit. Let there be no doubt Christians are condemned in the strongest terms.


Surah 5:73. [#112] Surely, disbelievers are those who said: "Allâh is the third of the three (in a Trinity)." But there is no ilâh (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Ilâh (God -Allâh). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them.


Surah 5:86. [#112] But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they shall be the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire.


Surah 9:29 [#113] Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and *feel themselves subdued.  

[*Pickthal “brought low”; Shakir “in a state of subjection.” -ARJ]


This Surah directly establishes the basis of fighting against Christians and forcing them into submission, subjection, and payment of the protection tax.  In contrast, the Bible indicates that support of Christianity is purely voluntary (2Cor 9:7). 


Surah 9:5 [#113] Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islâmic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikűn* (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, then leave their way free. Verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

*Al-Mushrikűn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.)


Surah 9:38. [#113] O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihâd) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.[]

9:39. If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allâh is Able to do all things.


Surah 9:41. [#113] March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allâh. This is better for you, if you but knew.


Surah 9:111. [#113] Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success .


Surah 9:123. [#113] O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allâh is with those who are the Al-Muttaqűn (the pious - see V.2:2).


Due to limitations on space here, it is not expedient to further cite the violent activities and teachings of Muhammad and his followers.


Our President has assured us that we are not at war with Islam.  That may have been his intention, and it may be true of many Muslims, but it appears that in the eyes of a large number of Muslims around the world, Islam is at war with us.  Their values, objectives and interests are in conflict with ours, and there will be no peace so long as they are in any position to strike us.  This flows from the underlying struggle of Islam to bring all else into submission, and inevitably locks it in a mortal struggle with Christianity. 


This is not an incidental or modern situation.  This struggle has been going on for close to fourteen centuries. 




From a Christian historicist view of the Book of Revelation, Islam was foreseen in chapter nine, the first “woe” when the “5th angel” sounded predicting the “locusts” swarming out of the bottomless pit and darkening the world. This fits the Saracens of Arabia who in barely a hundred years swept through Asia, across North Africa, through Spain into Western Europe.[32] 


This is followed in the same chapter by the second “woe.” At the sounding of “6th angel.” Horsemen, breathing fire and brimstone, cross the Euphrates.  This fits the Turkish hordes with gunpowder that swept out of Persia, conquered Constantinople and Greece, and pressed into southeastern Europe. [33]    


A further reference to the struggle with Islam may be indicated in Revelation 16:12-16 which speaks of the Euphrates being dried up that the way of the “kings of the East” might come from the sun rising for the day of the great battle of God.  This may be the very struggle which is taking place today between East and West as militant Islam tries to re-establish its empire.[34]




The Koran calls Christians “the people of the Book” (or scriptures).  As people of the Book, we are bound by the teachings of the Book to be faithful to it over Muhammad’s unsupported claims.


Let us not conclude that all Muslims are violent or that there is nothing good in Islam.  Many are peaceful and view suicide and killing of innocent civilians as in conflict with the teachings of the Koran.  Islam has had some very peaceful periods and high standards of learning and civilization. 


The Koran has many excellent teachings about justice and responsible behavior, much like those in the Bible.  Their emphasis on morality and modesty, though carried to an oppressive extreme, is certainly a commendable contrast to the debauched behavior so often seen in the West.  Their dedication to their faith puts many “Christians” to shame.

We must not just blame Muslims for the present struggle.  Their countries, though originally taken from others by violence, have been subjected to colonization and injustice.  Greed and exploitation by Western nations have plundered their resources and pushed them to violence to defend their independence and dignity.  Their religious values are threatened and they are in a struggle to defend them.  The problem is, where does legitimate defense end and aggression, fanaticism and brutality take over? 
While we must take issue with their claim that Muhammad was a prophet and to their violent extremes, Christians are not at liberty to abuse Muslims.  Our strength is in the power of the Gospel and returning love for evil. 


Romans 12:14 Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not. 18 If it be possible, as much as lies in you, live peaceably with all men. 19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. 20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. 21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.


Ephesians 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.


Romans 1: 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.




Our recourse for safety is through prayer to God, doing good in His name, and through the governing powers ordained by Him.


1 Timothy 2:1-3  I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;  2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;


 Romans 13:1-6  Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.  2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.  3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:  4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil5 Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.  6 For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.


1 Peter 3:13-14   13 And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good14 But and if ye suffer for righteousness' sake, happy are ye: and be not afraid of their terror, neither be troubled;


Revelation 12:11   11 And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.






Biography of Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq written 200 years after his death, edited a century later by Ibn Hisham –see A. Guillaume's translation.


Translations of the Koran by Yusufali, Pickthal and Shakir:


Translation of The Noble Quran:


The Koran can be searched at:


Topical index to the Koran


The Hadiths can be searched at:

Index of Hadiths


Research Christian viewpoint:


Research Muslim viewpoint:



The Koran lists the following prophets:


Surah 4:163. [#92] Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad SAW)[] as We inspired Nűh (Noah) and the Prophets after him; We (also) inspired Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac)[35], Ya'qűb (Jacob) [36], and Al­Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qűb (Jacob)], 'Iesa (Jesus), Ayub (Job), Yűnus (Jonah), Hârűn (Aaron) [37], and Sulaimân (Solomon), and to Dawűd (David) We gave the Zabűr (Psalms).


Surah 6:84. [#65] And We bestowed upon him Ishâque (Isaac) [38] and Ya'qűb (Jacob) [39], each of them We guided, and before him, We guided Nűh (Noah), and among his progeny Dawűd (David), Sulaimân (Solomon), Ayub (Job), Yűsuf (Joseph), Műsa (Moses)[40], and Hârűn (Aaron)[41]Thus do We reward the good­doers.

6:85. And Zakariyâ (Zachariya) [42], and Yahya (John [the Baptist -ARJ]) and 'Iesa (Jesus) and Iliyâs (Elias[43]), each one of them was of the righteous.

6:86. And Ismâ'il (Ishmael)[44] and Al-Yas'â (Elisha)[45], and Yűnus (Jonah)[46] and Lout (Lot)[47], and each one of them We preferred above the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinns) (of their times).


 Also: Adam, Idris (Enoch)[48], Samuel[49], Dhul-kifl (Isaiah)[50], 'Uzair (Ezra)[51], Hud[52], Shu'aib[53], Salih, Luqman[54], Dhul Qarnain[55]Muhammad.  (Surah 19:58; 29:27)



Summary of Qur'an details: (highlighted are Surahs given at Medina)



English Names



chronological order



The opening






The Cow






The Family of Imran












The Flood






The Cattle






The Elevated Places






The Spoils of War






























The Thunder












The Rock






The Bee





Bani Isra'il

The Israelites






The Cave











Ta Ha

Ta Ha






The Prophets






The Pilgrimage






The Believers






The Light






The Criterion






The Poets






The Ant






The Narative






The Spider






The Romans












The Adoration






The Allies












The Creator





Ya Sin

Ya Sin






The Rangers












The Companies






The Forgiving One





Ha Min Sajdah

Revelations Well Expounded






The Counsel






The Embellishment






The Evident Smoke






The Kneeling






The Sandhills












The Victory






The Chambers












The Scatterers






The Mountain






The Star






The Moon






The Merciful






That Which is Coming






The Iron






She Who Pleaded






The Exile






She Who is Tested






The Ranks






The Day of Congregation






The Hypocrites






The Cheating






The Divorce






The Prohibition






The Kingdom






The Pen






The Inevitable






The Ladders












The Jinn






The Mantled One






The Clothed One






The Resurrection






The Man






The Emissaries






The Tidings






Those Who Pulled Out






He Frowned






The Cessation






The Cleaving Asunder






The Defrauders






The Rending






The Constellations






The Night-Comer






The Most High






The Overwhelming Calamity






The Dawn






The City






The Sun






The Night






The Early Hours






The Expansion






The Fig






The Clot






The Majesty






The Proof






The Shaking






The Assaulters






The Terrible Calamity






Worldly Gain












The Slanderer






The Elephant






The Q`uraish






The Daily Necessaries












The Unbelievers






The Help






The Fame






The Unity






The Daybreak






The Men





  1. Traditionally, the first BISMILLAH before Sura Fathiha is counted as a verse. And all other "Bismillahs" are treated as Headings for various Suras and therefore not counted as verses.
  2. Sura 9 does not commence with Bismillah.
  3. The verse numbers in translations may not tally since some verses are split in the translation. Some of the Bismillahs are given verse numbers.
  4. Surahs are classified into Meccan or Madinan, i.e., according to where it was supposed to be revealed. Number of Meccan Suras = 86; Number of Madinan Suras = 28. Total = 114

5.        Total Number of Verses 6239



[1] The Noble Quran In the English Language A Summarized Version of At-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Kathir
with comments from Sahih Al-Bukhari By Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan

[2] Some writers speak of Muhammad as having seizures from his boyhood. 

W. R. W. Stephens, “Christianity and Islam, The Bible and The Koran” p.16, New York, Scribner, Armstrong & Co., 1877.  See also Schaff’s History of the Christian Church, CHAPTER III, § 42. Life and Character of Mohammed.

[3] Surah 96:1-5 Picthal translation

[4] Surah 74:2

[5] Stephens, Christianity and Islam, p.26-27

[6] Washington Irving, “Mohomet and His Successors” p.116-117.  The Co-operative Publication Society Inc. 

[7] Ibid.  Chapter 17

Also, “Islam Revealed, A Christian Arab’s View of Islam,” p.58, Dr. Anis A. Shorrosh, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988 

[8] Mohomet And His Successors by Washington Irving, chapter 17.  See also the Koran, 3:123-125

[9] Koran 3:155, 166, 152-153

   Hadith, Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 30, Number 108: Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

[10] Mohomet And His Successors by Washington Irving, chapter 20.

[11] Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 5, Chapter 57, Part 1 –Gibbons 

[12] Surah 9:29

[13] Surah 7:157-158

However, there is evidence that he could read (see “Islam Revealed, A Christian Arab’s view of Islam” pp. 52-54, Dr. Anis A. Shorrosh, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Tenn. 1988

[14] Sahih Bukhari, Hadith Vol.6, Book 61, Number 510

[15] Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984, pp.14-15.

[16] Note: Some Muslims will object that the “book” is in heaven, not the Bible. However, if the Bible is not the “book” then we have no “book.”  However Surah 5:68 identifies the “book” as including the Torah and the Gospel.


[18] Ibn Kathir (died 1373 CE ) in his Koranic commentary (Tafsir) of Surah Al-Rahman (55), verse 72:

[19] Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (pp. 461-462), the earliest Muslim biography of the Prophet. See Hadith Vol 4, Bk. 52, Number 68, 280. Compare Surah 33:26. also see Saheeh Muslim - 1769 Narrated Aisha

[20] Shorrosh, Islam Revealed, p.61-66.

[21] Wife of Zainab.  See Islam Revealed by Shorrosh, p. 62. Surah 33:36-37

[22] Shorrosh, Islam Revealed, p. 64-65.

[23] Shorosh, Islam Revealed, p.58.

[24] Surah 9:29

[25] Koran, 3:123-125; 8:41-42, 44

[26] Koran 3:155, 166, 152-153

    Hadith, Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 30, Number 108: Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

[27] Hadith, Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 48, Number 832: Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

[28] Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (pp. 461-462), the earliest Muslim biography of the Prophet. See Hadith Vol 4, Bk. 52, Number 68, 280. Compare Surah 33:26. also see Saheeh Muslim - 1769 Narrated Aisha

[29] Empires of Islam

[30] The Noble Quran In the English Language A Summarized Version of At-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Kathir
with comments from Sahih Al-Bukhari By Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, Ph.D. and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan

[31] Yusufali “turn renegades”; Pickthal “turn back (to enmity)”; Shakir “turn back

[32] Barnes Notes on The Book of Revelation, chapter 9

[33] Barnes Notes on The Book of Revelation, chapter 9

[34] cf. Barnes Notes on the Book of Revelation

[35] Surah 19:49

[36] Surah 19:49

[37] Surah 19:53

[38] Surah 19:49

[39] Surah 19:49

[40] Surah 19:51

[41] Surah 19:53

[42] Surah 19:2-12

[43] Surah 37:123

[44] Surah 19:54; 38:48

[45] Surah 38:48

[46] Surah 37:139

[47] Surah 21:74

[48] Surah 19:56

[49] Surah 2:247

[50] Surah 38:48

[51] Surah 39:45

[52] Surah 11:50

[53] Surah 11:84

[54] Surah 31:12

[55] Surah 18:83