History of Failures





Note: Click on links (A), (B), etc for photo-copies of the original documents.


Be True To God (A)

Better to read Russell's "Studies" than the Bible alone (B)

The Bible cannot be understood without Watchtower studies (C-1)

We cannot learn the truth on our own. (C-2)

Identifying the "Prophet(D-1)

Paralleling Ezekiel (D-2)

Modern-day Ezekiel "prophet" commissioned. (D-3)

What the Witnesses say is "directed from heaven." (D-4)

The Lord directs the minutest details. (F)

1874 exact date of our Lord's return.  1878 resurrection of dead. (G)

1914 farthest limit of rule of imperfect men. (H)

1914/1915 Complete overthrow of earth's present rulers. (I)

1914 prophecies not fulfilled. (J)

1918 God will destroy the churches and members by millions. (K)

1925 Abraham, Isaac, Jacob to return.  Millions will never die. (L-1)

 (continued) (L-2)   

1925 More indicated than 1914 (O)

1925 Failure of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob's return. (P)

1929 Beth-Sarim house for Abraham, Isaac, Jacob for ever (N-1)

Beth-Sarim house picture –sold. (N-2)   

1914, 1918, 1925 predictions did not come to pass. (Q)

True prophets and false-prophets. (R-1)

False prophet = false teacher. (R-2)

Watchtower organization directed by Jehovah's "active force." (S)

1938  Should the "Great Multitude" marry before Armageddon? No. (U)

1941 Marry and have children before Few years to Armageddon? No. (T)

"New Light" does not extinguish "old light" (V)

Avoid independent thinking. (W-1)

Fight against independent thinking. (W-2)

Followers must hate others (X)


Introduction:  Jehovah God warned against false prophets and set strict standards identifying true prophets.


Matthew 7:15-17  15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.  16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?  17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.


Deuteronomy 18:21-22   21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?  22 When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.




A.  WATCHTOWER, Jan 15, 1974, p.35


Can You Be True to God, Yet Hide The Facts?


WHAT results when a lie is let go  unchallenged? Does not silence help the lie to pass as truth, to have freer sway to influence many, perhaps to their serious harm?....


.....They have had to expose falsehood and wrongdoing and warn people of dangers and deceptions not just in a general way, but in a specific way, in the interest of pure worship. It would have been far easier to keep silent or say only what people wanted to hear. But faithfulness to God and love of neigh­bor moved them to speak. They realized that "better is a revealed reproof than a  concealed love."—Prov. 27:5.


Q: Should falsehood be exposed?


B.  WATCHTOWER, Sept, 15, 1910 [298-299] [4685]


If the six volumes of SCRIPTURE STUDIES are practically  the Bible topically arranged, with Bible proof-texts given, we might not improperly name the volumes—the Bible in an arranged form. That is to say, they are not merely comments on the Bible but they are practically the Bible itself, since there is no desire to build any doctrine or thought on any individual preference or on any individual wisdom, but to present the entire matter on the lines of the Word of God. We therefore think it safe to follow this kind of reading, this kind of instruction, this kind of Bible study.


Furthermore, not only do we find that people cannot see the divine plan in studying the Bible by itself, but we see, also, that if anyone lays the SCRIPTURE STUDIES aside. even after he has used them, alter he has become familiar with them, after he has read them for ten years—if he then lays them aside and ignores them and goes to the Bible alone, though he has understood his Bible for ten years, our experience shows that within two years he goes into darkness. On the other hand, if he had merely read the SCRIPTURE STUDIES with their references, and had not read a page of the Bible as such he would be in the light at the end of the two years, because he would have the light of the Scriptures.


Q: Better read Watchtower materials than the Bible?



C-1.  WATCHTOWER, Oct. 1, 1967, p.587


Thus the Bible is an organizational book  and belongs to the Christian congregation as an organization, not to individuals, re­gardless of how sincerely they may be­lieve that they can interpret the Bible. For this reason the Bible cannot be properly understood without Jehovah's visible or­ganization  in mind.


Q: Is the Bible not understandable without Watchtower?

Q: Why would God write a book that cannot be understood?



C-2.  WATCHTOWER, Dec. 1, 1990 p.19


13 We, have the opportunity to show love for our brothers who take the lead in the congregation or in connection with Jehovah's visible organization worldwide. This includes being loyal to "the faithful and discreet slave." (Matthew 24:45-47) Let us face the fact that no matter how much Bible reading we have done, we would never have learned the truth on our own. We would not have dis­covered the truth regarding Jehovah, his purposes and attributes, the meaning and importance of his name, the Kingdom, Je­sus' ransom, the difference between God's organization and Satan's, nor why God has permitted wickedness.  It is just as the Watch Tower Society's first president, Charles Taze Russell, wrote in 1914:...


Q: Bible, not understandable without the Watchtower?

Q: How can the Watchtower write more understandably than Jehovah?



D-1.  WATCHTOWER, April 1, 1972 p.197


They Shall know that A Prophet Was Among Them


...A third way of coming to know Jehovah God is through his representatives. In ancient times he sent prophets as his spe­cial messengers. While these men foretold things to come,  they also served the peo­ple by telling them of God's will for them at that time, often also warning them of dangers and calamities. People today can view the creative works. They have at hand the Bible, but it is little read or un­derstood. So, does Jehovah have a proph­et to help them, to warn them of dangers. and to declare things to come?



These questions can be answered in the affirmative. Who is this prophet?...


...This "prophet" was not one man, but was a body of men and women. It was-the small group of footstep follow­ers of Jesus Christ, known at that time as International Bible Students. Today they are known as Jehovah's Christian witnesses....


Of course, it is easy to say that this group acts as a "prophet" of God. It is another thing to prove it. The only way that this can be done is to review the record. What does it show?


Q: What does the record show?



D-2.  WATCHTOWER, April 1, 1972, p.198


Ezekiel was one of these men so used by God, and not only his prophecies, but also Ezekiel himself and his acts were pic­torial of things to come,...

These Bible Students had long been con­cerned with Ezekiel and his prophecy. In 1917 they published a book entitled "The Finished Mystery," explaining the book of Ezekiel as well as that of Revelation....


   Thus, this group of anointed followers of Jesus Christ, doing a work in Christendom paralleling Ezekiel's work...



D-3.  WATCHTOWER, April 1, 1972, p.199


Jews, were manifestly the modern-day Ezekiel, the "prophet" commissioned by Jehovah to declare the good news of God's Messianic kingdom and to give warning to Christendom. It is significant that, in 1931, after twelve years of faithful service de­spite the opposition of Christendom's clergy, these followers of Christ embraced the name "Jehovah's witnesses" at the same convention at which the book Vindication was released.—Isa. 43:10-12, American Standard Version....


In the modern fulfillment, who are the "rebellious nations" that have rebelled against Jehovah? Their counterpart is Christendom. The Bible gives the proof....


Q: "Jehovah's witnesses" were the modern-day Ezekiel "prophet"?



D-4.  WATCHTOWER, April 1, 1972, p.200


Jehovah's witnesses today make their dec­laration  of the good, news of the Kingdom under angelic direction and support. (Rev. 14:6, 7; Matt. 25:31, 32) And since no word or work of Jehovah can fail., for he is God Almighty, the nations will see the fulfillment of what these witnesses say as directed from heaven...


To Ezekiel, in his vision, and, symboli­cally to the modern-day "prophet," the spirit-begotten, anointed ones who are the nucleus of Jehovah's witnesses today, God gave something to eat.


Q: What the "spirit-begotten Watchtower leadership says is directed from heaven?



F.  1941 YEARBOOK, Sept. 19,

Daily Texts and Comments


September 19

Deborah said unto Barak, Up; for this is the day in which the Lord hath delivered Sisera into thine hand; is not the Lord gone out before thee?—Judg. 4:14.


The Watchtower Society is acting orderly under the direction of the Lord Jesus Christ, and such is the visible part of the organization. The commands or orders to that organization come from the Lord, and  not from any man, although men are used to have part in transmitting these to others of the organization. The Lord directs the minutest details, even selection' of the year text...


Q:  The commands don't come from any man?

Q:  The Lord directs the minutest details?



G.  STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, Vol. 3, 1908, p.306, 

"Thy Kingdom Come"


We have noted the fulfillment of the 1,260 days, or the time, times and half a time, of Papacy's power to persecute, and the beginning there, in  1799, of the Time of the End. We have seen how the 1,290 days marked the beginning of an understanding of the mysteries of prophecy in the year 1829, culminating in the great movement of 1844 known as the Second–Advent movement, when, according to the Lord's prediction, the wise virgins went forth to meet the Bridegroom, thirty years prior to his actual coining. We have seen the fulfillment of the predicted tarrying ; and for fifteen years the midnight cry, "Behold the Bridegroom" has gone forth. We have marked with special delight the 1,335 days, pointing, as they do, to 1874 as the exact date of our Lord's return; and we have since that time experienced the very blessedness promised—through the clearer unfoldings of the wonderful mysteries of the divine plan.

Then we have seen the great harvest work, in its ap­pointed time and order, beginning in the autumn of the year .1874, gradually and silently, but rapidly, progressing. We have marked the bundling and binding of the tares, and the gathering of the wheat. And what blessing and joy come to us in the assurance that since the summer of 1878, when the King took his great power and began his  rein by the resurrection of those who slept in Jesus, it is no longer needful that his members should "sleep" and wait for glory, but that for each the moment of finishing his course  in death is the moment of the joyful "change" to the full perfection of the divine nature and likeness. Indeed, "blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from henceforth" forever.


Q: Did the "time of the end" begin in 1799?

Q: Was 1874 the exact date of our Lord's return?

Q:  Did Jesus resurrect those who slept in Jesus in 1878?

Q:  Did Jesus direct these details?

Q:  What does the record show?



The Time is at Hand, 1910, p.76-77

Times of the Gentiles


In this chapter we present the Bible evidence proving that the full end of the times of the Gentiles i.e the full end of their lease of dominion, will be reached in A.D. 1914; and that that date will be the farthest limit of the rule of imperfect men. And be it observed, that if this is shown to be a fast firmly established by the Scriptures, it will prove:—

Firstly, That at that date the Kingdom of God, for which our Lord taught us to pray, saying, "Thy Kingdom come," Will obtain full, universal control, and that it will then be "set up," or firmly established in the earth, on the ruins of present institutions, ...


Thirdly, It will prove that some time before the end of A. D. 1914 the last member of the divinely recognized Church of Christ, the "royal priesthood," "the body of Christ," will be glorified with the Head; because every member is to reign with Christ, being a joint-heir with him of the Kingdom, and it cannot be fully "set up" without every member.

Fourthly, It will prove that from that time forward Jeru­salem shall no longer be trodden down of the Gentiles, but shall arise from the dust of divine disfavor, to honor; because the "Times of the Gentiles" will be fulfilled or completed.

Fifthly, It will prove that by that date, or sooner, Israel's blindness will begin to be turned away because their "blindness in part" was to continue only "until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in" (Rom. 11:25), or, in other words, until the full number from among the Gentiles, who are to be members of the body or bride of Christ, would be fully selected.


Q: Was 1914 the farthest limit of the rule of imperfect men?

Q: Was the last member of the "body of Christ" glorified before the end of A. D. 1914?

Q: Was Jerusalem no longer trodden down of the Gentiles from 1914?

Q: Was Israel's blindness removed from 1914?




The Time is at Hand 1910, p.101

Times of the Gentiles.


Be not surprised, then, when in subsequent chapters we present proofs that the setting up of the Kingdom of God is already begun, that it is pointed out in prophecy as due to begin the exercise of power in A.D. 1878, and that the "battle of the great day of God Almighty " (Rev. 16:14.), which will end in A.D. 1914 [1913 edition changed to "1915"] with the complete overthrow of earth's present rulership, is already commenced. The gathering of the armies is plainly visible from the standpoint of God's Word.


Q: Did the battle of Armageddon end in 1914?

Q: Was the earth's rulership completely overthrown in 1914? 



J.  LIGHT, Book 1, 1930, p.194

Rev. 11, Sackcloth


The Watch Tower, and its companion publications of the Society, for forty years emphasized the fact that 1914 would witness the establishment of God's kingdom and the complete glorification of the church. During that period of forty years God's people on earth were carrying on a witness work, which work was fore­shadowed by Elijah and John the Baptist. All of the Lord's people looked forward to 1914 with joyful expectation. When that time came and passed there was much disappointment, chagrin and mourning, and the Lord's people were greatly in reproach. They were ridiculed by the clergy and their allies in par­ticular, and pointed to with scorn, because they had  said so much about 1914, and what would come to pass, and their 'prophecies' had not been fulfilled.


Q: What does the record show?

Q: Their 'prophecies' had not been fulfilled???

Q: Did God direct these details?


Deuteronomy 18:20-22   20 But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die.  21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?  22 When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.




The Boiling Caldron


Also, in the year 1918 when God destroys the churches wholesale and the church members by millions, It shall be that any that escape shall come to the works of Pastor Russell to learn the meaning  of the downfall or "Christianity."


Q: In the year 1918 did God destroy the churches wholesale...?

Q: Did God direct these details?





p.88....That period of time begin­ning 1575 before A. D. 1 of necessity would end in the fall of the year 1925, at which time the type ends and the great antitype must begin. What, then, should we expect to take place? In the type there must be a full restoration; there­fore the great antitype must mark the begin­ning of restoration of all things. The chief thing to be restored is the human race to life; and since other Scriptures definitely fix the fact, that there will be a resurrection of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and other faithful ones of old, and that these will have the first favor, we may ex­pect 1925 to witness the return of these faithful  men of Israel from the condition of death, being resurrected and fully restored to perfect hu­manity and made the visible, legal representa­tives of the new order of things on earth....




As we have heretofore stated, the great jubi­lee cycle is due to begin in 1925. At that time the earthly phase of the kingdom shall be recognized. The Apostle Paul in the eleventh chapter of Hebrews names a long list of faithful men who died before the crucifixion of the Lord and before the beginning of the selection of the church. These can never be a part of the heav­enly class; they had no heavenly hopes; but God has in store something good for them. They are to be resurrected as perfect men and constitute the princes or rulers in the earth, according to his promise. (Psalm 45:16; Isaiah 32:1; Matt­hew 8:11) Therefore we may  confidently ex­pect that 1925 will mark the return of Abraham,

Isaac, Jacob and the faithful prophets of old, particularly those named by the Apostle in Hebrews chapter eleven, to the condition of human perfection.




Q: Were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob resurrected in 1925?



O.  WATCHTOWER, September 1, 1922, p.262


...The physical facts show beyond question of a doubt that 1914 ended the Gentile times; and as the Lord foretold, the old order is being de­stroyed by war, famine, pestilence, and revolution.

 The date 1925 is even more distinctly indicated by the Scriptures because it is fixed by the law God gave to Israel.  Viewing the present situation in Europe, one wonders how it will he possible to  hold back the explosion much longer; and that even before 1925 the  great crisis will be reached and probably passed.


Q: Was the date 1825 more distinctly indicated than 1914?




P.  1980 YEARBOOK, p.62


That same year of 1925 sparked off even greater difficulties within the organization. The book Mil­lions Now Living Will Never Die had been widely used in the French field since 1921, and on the basis of its contents, much was expected of 1925. But when 1925 came and went without  the anticipated happenings coming to pass, those on the outside who had read the book made fun of the brothers. Brother Jules Anache in Sin-le-Noble writes: "We were scoffed at by our enemies who wrote articles, one of which was entitled 'Millions now living will never die if they take Pink pills,' referring to a remedy that was popular at the time."

    Worse still, the faith of some of the brothers themselves was shaken. Some  expected to go to heaven that year. This brought about siftings in the congregations, particularly in Alsace. Sister Anna Zimmermann writes: "Unjustified hopes brought about great testings. Many gave up."


Q: Did God direct this detail?

Q: What does the record show?



N-1.  SALVATION 1939, p.311

God's Government


At San Diego, California, there is a small piece of land, on which, in the year 1929, there was built  a house, which is called  and known as  Beth-Sarim. The Hebrew words Beth Sarim lean "House of the Princes"; and the purpose of acquiring that property and building the 'house was that there might be some tangible proof that there are those on earth today who fully believe God and Christ Jesus and in His kingdom, and who believe that the faithful men of old will soon be resurrected by the Lord, be back on earth, and take charge of the visible affairs of earth. The title to Beth-Saran is vested in the WATCH TOWER BIBLE TRACT SOCIETY in trust, to be used by the president of the So­ciety and his assistants for the present, and thereafter to be for ever at the disposal of the aforementioned princes on  the earth.


N-2.  SALVATION 1939, p.312

God's Government


Q: Did the Watchtower Society keep Beth Sarim for ever for Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to live in after they were resurrected in 1925?

Q: How accurate was this "prophet" class about 1925?

Q: If 1925 was "even more distinctly indicated" than 1914, why were not the "Faithful Worthies" resurrected as predicted?



Q.  VINDICATION, Vol. 1, 1931, p. 146



God's faithful people on the earth emphasized the importance of the dates 1914 and 1918 and 1925. They had much to say about these dates and what would come to pass, but all they predicted did not come to pass. The predictions as to the dates were correct, but what came to pass could not be fully seen in advance. The failure to come to pass of some of the things predicted has afforded Satan's agents in Chris­tendom, particularly the clergy and the "man of sin", an opportunity to ridicule and reproach the faithful servants of the Lord and to say of and con­cerning them and their predictions: 'All their visions and predictions have failed; and such proves that they are all wrong, and that all their predictions for the future must fail.'


Q: How does God say to know a false-prophet?

Deuteronomy 18:21-22   21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?  22 When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.

Q: Can we trust the organization?



R-1.  WATCHTOWER, May 15, 1930, p.154


But it. may be asked, How are we to know whether one is a true or a false prophet? There are at least three ways by which we can positively decide; 1. If he is a true prophet, his message will come to pass exactly as prophesiedIf he is a false prophet, his prophecy will fail to come to pass.  This rule is laid down by God himself, through Moses, as follows: "If thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word...



R-2.  WATCHTOWER, May 15, 1930, p.155


The conclusion, therefore, is irresistible that they were God's holy prophets. The difference between a true and a false prophet is that the one is speaking the word of the Lord and the other is his own dreams and guesses....


The true prophet of God today will be telling forth what the Bible teaches, and those things that the Bible tells us are soon to come to pass.  He will not be sounding forth man-made theories either his own or those of others....


In the New Testament, and in our day, the word "prophet" has a thought similar to that of our word "teacher", in the sense of a public expounder. Hence when the term "false prophet" is used, we shall get the correct thought if we think of a false teacher.


This text proves again that those men who foretell things out of harmony with the Bible statements are false prophets.


R-3.  WATCHTOWER, May 15, 1930, p.155 (continued)


Their prophecies did not come true.  Therefore they are false prophecies; and the people therefore should no longer trust them as safe guides.


Q: Did the Watchtower predictions all come to pass?

Q: Are they false teachers?

Q: Can we trust them?



S.  WATCHTOWER, July 1, 1973, p402


Consider, too, the fact that Jehovah's organization alone, in all the earth is di­rected by God's holy spirit or active force. (Zech. 4:6) Only this organization func­tions for Jehovah's purpose and to his praise. To it alone God's Sacred Word, the Bible, is not a sealed book.


Direction by God's spirit enables Je­hovah's servants to have divine light in a world of spiritual darkness. (2 Cor. 4: 4) For instance, long ago they understood that 1914 C.E. would mark the end of the Gentile Times or "appointed times of the nations," during which the Gentile na­tions were allowed uninterrupted rulership of the earth. (Luke 21:24) This 2,520-year period began with the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple by the Babylo­nians in the late seventh century B.C.E. For example, Zion's Watch, Tower of March 1880 had declared: "'The Times  of the Gentiles' extend to 1914, and the heavenly kingdom will not have full sway till then." Only God by his holy spirit

could have revealed this to those. early Bible students so far in advance.


Q: Did the heavenly kingdom have "full sway" after 1914?




U.  WATCHTOWER, Vol., LIX, Nov. 1, 1938, p.323

"Fill The Earth" part 2



 If in obedience to the divine command the Jonadabs or great multitude will marry and rear children after Armageddon, would it not be Scripturally proper for them to begin doing so immediately before Armageddon! and should the Jonadabs now be encouraged to marry and rear children? No is  answer, supported by the Scriptures.


Q: Doesn't waiting 70 years (and counting) to get married and have children seem a stretch today?



T.  CHILDREN, 1941, p.312

"The Mandate"    


Should men and women, both of whom are Jonadabs or "other sheep" of the Lord, now marry before Armageddon and bring forth children?  They may choose to do so, but the admonition or advice of the Scripture appears to be against it.


p. 313

That would appear to indicate it would be proper that those who will form the "great multitude" should wait until after Armageddon to bring children into the world.

    It is only a few years from the time the "other sheep" are gathered to the Lord until Armageddon.


Q: Isn't it getting a bit late for those who married in 1941 and waited for Armageddon to have children?



V.  WATCHTOWER, Feb. 1881, p.3


  If we were following man undoubtedly it would be different with us; undoubtedly one human idea would contradict another and that which was light  one or two or six years ago would be  regarded as darkness now: But with God there is no variableness, neither shadow of turning, and so it is with truth; any knowledge or light coming from God must be like its author. A new view of truth never can contradict a former truth.  "New light" never extinguishes older "light," but adds to it.  If you were lighting up a building con­taining seven gas jets you would not extinguish one every time you lighted another, but would add one light to another and they would he in harmony and thus give increase of light: So is it with the light of truth; the true increase is by adding to, not by substituting one for another.


Q: Why has the "new light" of the Watchtower repeatedly discarded old dates and teachings and for new?



W-1.  WATCHTOWER, July 15, 1961, p.420


Avoid Independent Thinking

2° From the very outset of his rebellion Satan called into question God's way of doing things. He promoted independent thinking. You can decide for yourself what is good and bad,' Satan told Eve. 'You don't have to listen to God. He is not really telling you the truth.' (Genesis 3:1-5) To this day, it has been Satan's subtle design to infect God's people with this type of thinking.-2 Timothy 3:1, 13.

2, How is such independent thinking manifested'? A common way is by ques­tioning the counsel that is provided by God's visible  organization.


Q: Is it wise to submit one's thinking totally to any organization, especially when they have been wrong so many times?



W-2.  WATCHTOWER, January 15, 1983, p.27


 Fight Against Independent Thinking  '9 As we study the Bible we learn that Jehovah has always guided his servants in an organized way. And just as in the first century there was only one true Christian organization, so today Jehovah is using only one organization. (Ephe­sians 4:4, 5; Matthew 24:45-47) Yet there are some who point out that that the Organization has had to make adjustments before, and so they argue: "This shows that we have to make up our own mind on what to believe." This is independent thinking. Why is it so dangerous?

2° Such thinking is an evidence of pride. And the Bible says: "Pride is before a crash, and a haughty spirit before stum­bling." (Proverbs 16:18) If we get to thinking that we know better than the organization, we should ask ourselves: "Where did we learn Bible truth in the first place? Would we know the way of the truth if it had not been for guidance from the organization? Really, can we get along without the direction of God's  organization?" No. we cannot.



X.  WATCHTOWER, July 15, 1961, p.420


Jesus encouraged his followers to love their enemies, but God's Word also says to "hate what is bad." When a person per­sists in a way of badness after knowing what is right, when the bad becomes so ingrained that it is an inseparable part of  his make-up, then in order to hate what is bad a Christian must hate the person with whom the badness is inseparably linked. Indicating that Jesus did not mean for us to love the hardened enemies of Jehovah.